Arthur Schopenhauer




Nationality: German
Birth Date: February 22, 1788
Death Date: September 21, 1860

Genre(s): PHILOSOPHY; ESSAYS; NONFICTION

Table of Contents:
Biographical and Critical Essay
Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde
Ueber das Sehn und die Farben
Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung
Uber den Willen in der Natur
The Will in Nature
Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik
Essay on the Freedom of the Will
Parerga und Paralipomena
Writings by the Author
Further Readings about the Author
About This Essay

WRITINGS BY THE AUTHOR:

BOOKS

  • Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde: Eine philosophische Abhandlung (Rudolstadt: Hof-Buch- und Kunsthandlung, 1813; revised and enlarged edition, Frankfurt am Main: Hermann, 1847; edited by Julius Frauenstädt, Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1864; edited by Michael Landmann and Elfriede Tielsch, Hamburg: Meiner, 1970); translated by Mme. Karl Hillebrand as "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason," in Two Essays by Arthur Schopenhauer (London: Bell, 1889); translated by F. E. J. Payne in The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (Lasalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1974).

  • Ueber das Sehn und die Farben: Eine Abhandlung (Leipzig: Hartknoch, 1816; enlarged, 1854; edited by Frauenstädt, Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1870); chapter 1 translated by Payne as "On Vision," in The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, pp. 237-255.

  • Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung: Vier Bücher, nebst einem Anhange, der die Kritik der Kantischen Philosophie enthält (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1819; revised and enlarged, 2 volumes, 1844; revised and enlarged again, 2 volumes, 1854; edited by Frauenstädt, 2 volumes, 1873); translated by Richard B. Haldane and John Kemp as The World as Will and Idea, 3 volumes (London: Trübner, 1883-1886; Boston: Ticknor, 1887; reprinted, New York: AMS Press, 1977); translated by Payne as The World as Will and Representation, 2 volumes (Indian Hills, Col.: Falcon's Wing Press, 1958; reprinted, New York: Dover, 1966).

  • Ueber den Willen in der Natur: Eine Erörterung der Bestätigungen, welche die Philosophie des Verfassers, seit ihrem Auftreten, durch die empirischen Wissenschaften erhalten hat (Frankfurt am Main: Schmerber, 1836; revised and enlarged edition, edited by Frauenstädt, Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1867); translated anonymously as The Will in Nature: An Account of the Corroborations Received by the Author's Philosophy from the Empirical Sciences (New York: Eckler, 1877; reprinted, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1982); translated by Hillebrand as "On the Will in Nature," in Two Essays by Arthur Schopenhauer;

  • Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik, behandelt in zwei akademischen Preisschriften (Frankfurt am Main: Hermann, 1841; revised and enlarged edition, Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1860)--comprises "Ueber die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens," translated by Konstantin Kolenda as Essay on the Freedom of the Will (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1960; Oxford: Blackwell, 1985); "Ueber das Fundament der Moral," translated by Arthur Brodrick Bullock as The Basis of Morality (London: Sonnenschein, 1903; New York: Macmillan, 1903); translated by Payne as On the Basis of Morality (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965).

  • Parerga und Paralipomena: Kleine philosophische Schriften, 2 volumes (Berlin: Hayn, 1851; revised and enlarged edition, edited by Frauenstädt, Berlin: Hahn, 1862; edited by Arthur Hübscher, Stuttgart: Reclam, 1953); selections translated by Thomas Bailey Saunders as Religion: A Dialogue; and Other Essays (London: Sonnenschein, 1899; New York: Macmillan, 1899; reprinted, Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972)--comprises "Religion: A Dialogue," "A Few Words on Pantheism," "On Books and Reading," "On Physiognomy," "Psychological Observations," "The Christian System," "The Failure of Philosophy," "The Metaphysics of Fine Art"; selections translated by Saunders as The Wisdom of Life: Being the First Part of Arthur Schopenhauer's Aphorismen zur Lebensweisheit (London: Sonnenschein, 1890)--comprises "Introduction," "Division of the Subject," "Personality, or What a Man Is," "Property, or What a Man Has," "Position, or a Man's Place in the Estimation of Others"; selections translated by Saunders as Counsels and Maxims: Being the Second Part of Arthur Schopenhauer's Aphorismen zur Lebensweisheit (London: Sonnenschein, 1890; New York: Macmillan, 1899; reprinted, St. Clair Shores, Mich.: Scholarly Press, 1970)--comprises "General Rules," "Our Relation to Ourselves," "Our Relation to Others," "Worldly Fortune," "The Ages of Life"; selections translated by Saunders as Studies in Pessimism: A Series of Essays (London: Sonnenschein/New York: Macmillan, 1890; reprinted, St. Clair Shores, Mich.: Scholarly Press, 1970)--comprises "On the Sufferings of the World," "On the Vanity of Existence," "On Suicide," "Immortality: A Dialogue," "Further Psychological Observations," "On Education," "On Women," "On Noise," "A Few Parables"; selections translated by Saunders as The Art of Literature: A Series of Essays (London: Sonnenschein, 1890; New York: Macmillan, 1897)--comprises "On Authorship," "On Style," "On the Study of Latin," "On Men of Learning," "On Thinking for Oneself," "On Some Forms of Literature," "On Criticism," "On Reputation," "On Genius"; selections from volume 2 translated by R. J. Hollingdale as Essays and Aphorisms (Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1970); entire work translated by Payne as Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974).

  • Aus Arthur Schopenhauer's handschriftlichem Nachlass: Abhandlungen, Anmerkungen, Aphorismen und Fragmente, edited by Frauenstädt (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1864).

  • Arthur Schopenhauer's sämmtliche Werke, edited by Frauenstädt (6 volumes, Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1873-1874; revised and enlarged by Hübscher, 7 volumes, 1937-1950).

  • Arthur Schopenhauer's sämmtliche Werke, edited by Eduard Grisebach, 6 volumes (Leipzig: Reclam, 1891).

  • Handschriftlicher Nachlass: aus den auf der Königlichen Bibliothek in Berlin verwahrten Manuskriptbüchern, edited by Grisebach, 4 volumes (Leipzig: Reclam, 1891-1893)--comprises volume 1, Balthasar Gracian's Hand-Orakel und Kunst der Weltklugheit, translated by Schopenhauer; volume 2, Einleitung in die Philosophie nebst Abhandlungen; volume 3, Anmerkungen zu Locke und Kant; volume 4, Neue Paralipomena.

  • Arthur Schopenhauers sämtliche Werke, edited by Paul Deussen, 13 volumes (Munich: Piper, 1911-1942).

  • Reisetagebücher aus den Jahren 1803-1804, edited by Charlotte von Gwinner, (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1923).

  • Der junge Schopenhauer: Aphorismen und Tagebuchblätter, edited by Hübscher (Munich: Piper, 1938).

  • Der handschriftliche Nachlass>, edited by Hübscher, 5 volumes (Frankfurt am Main: Kramer, 1966-1975)--comprises volume 1, Frühe Manuskripte (1804-1818), translated by Valerie Egret-Payne as Manuscript Remains: Early Manuscripts (1804-1818) (Oxford: Berg, 1988); volume 2, Kritische Auseinandersetzungen (1809-1818), translated by Payne as Critical Debates (1809-1818) (Oxford: Berg, 1988); volume 3, Berliner Manuskripte (1818-1830); volume 4, part 1, Die Manuskriptbücher der Jahre 1830 bis 1852; volume 4, part 2, Letzte Manuskripte; Gracians Handorakel; volume 5, Randschriften zu Büchern; Eristische Dialektik oder Die Kunst, Recht zu behalten (Zurich: Haffmans, 1983).

  • Metaphysik des Schönen: Aus dem handschriftlichen Nachlass, edited by Volker Spierling (Munich: Piper, 1985).

  • Theorie des gesammten Vorstellens, Denkens und Erkennens: Aus dem handschriftlichen Nachlass, edited by Spierling (Munich: Piper, 1986).

  • Metaphysik dem Natur: Aus dem handschriftlichen Nachlass, edited by Spierling (Munich: Piper, 1987).

  • Metaphysik der Sitten: Aus dem handschriftlichen Nachlass, edited by Spierling (Munich: Piper, 1988).

  • Die Reisetagebücher, edited by Ludger Lutkehaus (Zurich: Haffmans, 1988).

BOOKS--Editions in English

  • Select Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer, translated by Garritt Droppers and C. A. P. Dachsel (Milwaukee: Sentinel, 1881)--comprises "Biographical Sketch," "The Misery of Life," "Metaphysics of Love," "Genius," "Aesthetics of Poetry," "Education".

  • Selected Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer: With Biographical Introduction and Sketch of His Philosophy, translated by Ernest Belfort Bax (London: Bell, 1891)--comprises "Life and Philosophy of Schopenhauer," "Sketch of a History of the Doctrine of the Ideal and Real," "Fragments of the History of Philosophy," "On Philosophy and Its Method," "Some Reflections on the Antithesis of Thing-In-Itself and Phenomenon," "Some Words on Pantheism," "On Ethics," "On the Doctrine of the Indestructibility of Our True Nature by Death," "On Suicide," "Contributions to the Doctrine of the Affirmation and Negation of the Will-to-live," "On the Metaphysics of the Beautiful and on Aesthetics," "On Thinking for Oneself," "On Reading and Books," "On Women".

  • The Art of Controversy, and Other Posthumous Papers, selected and translated by Saunders (London: Sonnenschein/New York: Macmillan, 1896)--comprises "The Art of Controversy," "On the Comparative Place of Interest and Beauty in Works of Art," "Psychological Observations," "On the Wisdom of Life: Aphorisms," "Genius and Virtue".

  • On Human Nature: Essays (Partly Posthumous) in Ethics and Politics, selected and translated by Saunders (London: Sonnenschein/New York: Macmillan, 1897)--comprises "Human Nature," "Government," "Free-will and Fatalism," "Character," "Moral Instinct," "Ethical Reflections".

  • Transcendent Speculations on Apparent Design in the Fate of the Individual, translated by David Irvine (London: Watts, 1913).

LETTERS

  • Briefwechsel zwischen Arthur Schopenhauer und Johann August Becker, edited by Johann Karl Becker (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1883).

  • Schopenhauer-Briefe: Sammlung meist ungedruckter oder schwer zugänglicher Briefe von, an und über Schopenhauer. Mit Anmerkungen und biographischen Analekten, edited by Ludwig Schemann (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1893).

  • Schopenhauer's Briefe an Becker, Frauenstädt, v. Doss, Lindner und Asher: Sowie andere, bisher nicht gesammelte Briefe aus den Jahren 1813 bis 1860, edited by Eduard Grisebach (Leipzig: Reclam, 1894).

  • Arthur Schopenhauers Briefwechsel und andere Dokumente, edited by Max Brahn (Leipzig: Insel, 1911).

  • Der Briefwechsel zwischen Arthur Schopenhauer und Otto Lindner, edited by Robert Gruber (Vienna & Leipzig: Hartleben, 1913).

  • Briefe, Aufzeichnungen, Gespräche, edited by Paul Wiegler (Berlin: Ullstein, 1916).

  • Schopenhauer und Brockhaus: Zur Zeitgeschichte der "Welt als Wille und Vorstellung." Ein Briefwechsel, edited by Carl Gebhart (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1926).

  • Arthur Schopenhauer: Mensch und Philosoph in seinen Briefen, edited by Arthur Hübscher (Wiesbaden: Brockhaus, 1960).

  • Gesammelte Briefe, edited by Hübscher (Bonn: Bouvier, 1978).


One of the leading German metaphysicians of the nineteenth century, Arthur Schopenhauer is exceptional in having had a widespread influence outside of philosophy; among his admirers may be counted such figures as Richard Wagner, Friedrich Nietzsche, Tolstoy, and Thomas Mann. Within philosophy itself, Schopenhauer is important for having broken with his Idealist contemporaries both in espousing a down-to-earth materialism and in forsaking philosophic jargon in favor of a limpid and vigorous literary style. He put forward a metaphysics of the will which approached life in concrete terms (his psychological insights often anticipate Freud) and resulted in a pessimistic attitude to the cosmos. Schopenhauer held that there are two ways to combat the tyranny of the will. The first is through art, at its most exalted in music; it is this aspect that entitles him to be thought of as the exemplarily Romantic philosopher, expounding (in Thomas Mann's phrase) a "Künstlerphilosophie [artist's philosophy] par excellence." The second path lies in an ethic of asceticism and self-overcoming; Schopenhauer was one of the first Western thinkers to take seriously Hindu and Buddhist philosophy.

Schopenhauer was born on 22 February 1788 in Danzig (today Gdansk, Poland). His father, Heinrich Schopenhauer, was a successful businessman of Dutch extraction who so despised absolutist government that when Danzig was annexed to Prussia in 1793 he moved his family and business to Hamburg. Schopenhauer's mother, Johanna Henriette Trosiener Schopenhauer, was of an artistic temperament and had some success as a writer. The family traveled a good deal, and the young Schopenhauer spent several years touring with them through France, England (including several months at a mediocre school in London), Switzerland, and Austria, as well as throughout Germany. In his travels Schopenhauer developed a love of natural beauty, along with a hatred of the human cruelty he witnessed everywhere. He also acquired a facility in several languages; as a thinker Schopenhauer was to be a cosmopolitan who admired English and French models more than German (his library had comparatively few books in that language).

After his father's death--probably by suicide--in 1805 Schopenhauer honored a promise he had made to enter business, although he found commerce distasteful. He remained in Hamburg only a year, after which he persuaded his mother to let him continue his education--first at a gymnasium in Gotha, where he was expelled for a prank, and then in 1808 at his mother's house in Weimar, where she had established a literary salon. He entered the University of Göttingen as a student of medicine in 1809. His interests were, however, captured by the lectures of the skeptic Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who encouraged him to read the works of Plato and Immanuel Kant; these authors, together with Schulze's stylistic clarity and emphasis on will, had a lasting effect on Schopenhauer's thinking. In 1811 Schopenhauer began philosophical studies at the University of Berlin. He attended lectures by Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Schleiermacher but quickly tired of them, not for the last time exercising his biting sarcasm on other thinkers.

During the Wars of Liberation in 1813 he withdrew to Rudolstat to finish his dissertation, which was published the same year with the title Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde (translated as "On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason," 1889). Schopenhauer always considered it the proper introduction to his thought, even though its abstractness and Kantian terminology make it rather forbidding. He argues that human knowledge presupposes the unprovable principle that everything must have a ground or reason. Knowledge takes four main forms: empirical representations of real objects; logical judgment and reasoning; mathematical knowledge; and knowledge of the self and its motives. Schopenhauer argues that human beings are not, as Kant thought, free agents but are ruled by a universal will.

On Schopenhauer's return to Weimar Goethe publicly acclaimed the work, and the two men cooperated on studies of the theory of color. The essay that Schopenhauer wrote on the subject did not meet with Goethe's approval, however. Schopenhauer had to ask Goethe for the return of the manuscript so that he could publish it, and it appeared under the title Ueber das Sehn und die Farben (On Vision and Colors, translated as "On Vision," 1974) in 1816. Schopenhauer's concerns had in the meanwhile taken a new turn thanks to his making the acquaintance of the well-known orientalist Friedrich Mayer, who introduced him to the Upanishads and various Buddhist texts. These works had a profound effect on his subsequent thinking.

Schopenhauer did not remain long at Weimar. After several quarrels with his mother--who, like her son, was headstrong, nervous, and self-centered--he left the house and never saw her again. From 1814 to 1818 he lived in Dresden, engaged in writing his greatest achievement, Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (translated as The World as Will and Idea, 1883-1886). The work appeared in 1819 (the printer said that Schopenhauer's behavior in correspondence was that of a cabman rather than a philosopher).

In the preface Schopenhauer writes that his book has a single idea--which nevertheless takes hundreds of pages (and indeed took the rest of his life) to develop: the world is but appearance, beneath whose illusory features lurks an implacable, irrational, impenetrable, merciless will; the workings of this will are unknown to human agents. The Vorstellungen (representations) that constitute the empirical world are subject to the principle of sufficient reason, which states that everything is causally determined. Language consists of representations of representations; its purpose is not to depict reality but is the purely instrumental one of communication (Nietzsche's theory of language was heavily influenced by Schopenhauer). The will behind the appearances is a monistic force or energy underlying and expressing itself in the phenomenal world. The will is thus extended beyond the human realm to nature in general: in human affairs it manifests itself in the ubiquity of desire--the sexual drive in particular--and in the unconscious determination of behavior.

The will can never be grasped as it is in itself; all one can know are its typical forms of expression, which Schopenhauer calls "Ideen" (Ideas) in the Platonic sense. Art--the topic of the third part of the book--offers both insight into and relief from the relentless action of the will. In revealing the forms the will takes in the world the work of art produces a disinterested and distanced attitude in both the creator and the spectator. Art is not caught up in the practical world of values and usefulness; it has nothing to do with individual objects connected by causal relationships. The highest art, music, escapes the realm of individuation altogether (at least so far as it is "pure" music, unsullied by words); music is not like the other arts, a copy of the Ideas but a copy of the will itself. The other arts speak only of shadows, while music speaks of the essence of the will. It is hardly surprising that the lyrical pages Schopenhauer devotes to this art of arts should have inspired musicians and musically inclined writers such as Wagner, Nietzsche, Hans Pfitzner, Marcel Proust, and Thomas Mann.

But art offers only a temporary exit from the phenomenal world--the world of suffering, of practical affairs, of causal determinism. The more lasting path is not aesthetic but ethical. The individual, Schopenhauer argues, ought to overcome the chains of desire that enslave him to the will; the ideal is disillusioned, ascetic turning away from the world. It would be better not to have been born; yet suicide is a mistake, since it rules out the possibility of self-overcoming.

Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung excited little comment or interest on its publication (nor on its revision in 1844, at which time Schopenhauer added fifty chapters to the work). Undeterred by the book's failure, in 1820 Schopenhauer obtained permission to teach classes at the University of Berlin, deliberately choosing to lecture at the same time as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, whom he termed a "charlatan" and "that intellectual Caliban." But Hegel was then entering upon the period of his greatest popularity, and Schopenhauer failed to attract an audience. In a state of nervous collapse he escaped to Italy. But he soon had to return to Berlin to answer a charge of battery brought by a seamstress: Schopenhauer, who hated noise (and wrote an amusing essay [1851; translated, 1890] on the topic), had been enraged by her loud chattering on the landing outside his room; in the ensuing altercation he pushed her, and she fell down a flight of stairs. He lost the case and was obliged to pay her a monthly allowance until her death. (When she finally died, twenty years later, he commented, "Obit anus, abit onus" [The old woman dies, the burden is lifted]). The experience served only to make him more misanthropic and misogynous--his diatribe "Über die Weiber" (1851; translated as "On Women," 1890) is notorious.

In 1831 Schopenhauer moved to Frankfurt to escape a cholera epidemic, and after 1833 he scarcely left the city. There he entered on the life for which he has become famous: almost in a parody of Kant, he dressed in an old-fashioned way, ate at strictly regular times, and took his daily walk in the company of his much-loved poodle Atma. Apart from occasional visits to the theater and reading the newspapers at the public library, he was the model of a scholarly recluse.

Besides a posthumously published translation of the seventeenth-century Spanish Jesuit Baltasar Gracián's Hand-Orakel und Kunst der Weltklugheit (Manual Oracle and Art of Worldly Wisdom, 1891), he wrote three more books. Über den Willen in der Natur (1836; translated as The Will in Nature, 1877) argues that his philosophy has received support from the empirical sciences. Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik (The Two Basic Problems of Ethics, 1841) comprises the two essays "Ueber die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens" (translated as Essay on the Freedom of the Will, 1960) and "Ueber das Fundament der Moral" (translated as The Basis of Morality, 1903). The former is an economical exposition of the problem of freedom and determinism that is still worth reading. In 1851 appeared a large collection of essays titled Parerga und Paralipomena (literally, Byproducts and Omissions; translated, 1974). Here Schopenhauer indulges to the full his literary and polemical skills, writing with verve on religion, ethics, aesthetics, literary style, philosophical method, university education, suicide, noise, women, and many other topics. He planned a five-volume edition of his collected works which was to carry the motto "non multa" (not a lot), but he was unable to complete the project (the first such collection was published by his literary executor, Julius Frauenstädt, in 1873-1874). The Schopenhauerian corpus remains a spare one.

Gradually Schopenhauer began to attract a following. The initial interest came from England--appropriately for someone who admired English political and cultural traditions. In 1853 John Oxenford, a translator of Goethe, wrote a short article on Schopenhauer for the Westminster Review titled "Iconoclasm in German Philosophy." It was at once translated into German and widely read. Favorable reactions quickly followed in France and Italy. Within a short time his ideas were being disseminated in German universities, and admirers began visiting him in his rooms at the Englischer Hof.

Schopenhauer had little time to enjoy this adulation. Heart trouble was diagnosed in 1857, and after a second heart attack in 1860 he developed an inflammation of the lungs. His doctor found him dead in his chair on the morning of 21 September of that year. In accordance with his wishes, his gravestone bore only the words "Arthur Schopenhauer."

His influence was largely posthumous. The moment for his ideas came later: they served as a bridge between earlier idealist systems and late nineteenth-century naturalism, irrationalism, and Lebensphilosophie (life philosophy). His appeal has been to artists and cultural critics as much as to philosophers and is literary or imaginative as much as intellectual, although twentieth-century analytic philosophy has shown some interest in Schopenhauer's metaphysics, largely thanks to the influence of Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Those influenced by his ideas include, above all, Wagner, who in 1857 sent the philosopher an inscribed copy of Der Ring des Nibelungen (1848); it was not acknowledged. Most of Wagner's mature operas--especially Tristan und Isolde--are unthinkable without their Schopenhauerian scaffolding; Wagner's privileging of music above words and his characteristic themes of renunciation and sympathy come straight from Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. It is true that Wagner sees redemption being won less through art than through love, and sexual love at that; but the importance of sexuality is stressed by Schopenhauer, too. Both Schopenhauer and Wagner worked powerfully upon the imagination of the young Nietzsche: the Dionysian/Apollonian polarity art as the justification of the world, the will to power, the eternal return are all transformations of Schopenhauerian leitmotifs. And Thomas Mann read Schopenhauer at a crucial moment during the writing of his novel Buddenbrooks (1901; translated, 1924) and fell into what he called a "metaphysical intoxication." Other German-language writers influenced by Schopenhauer include Wilhelm Raabe, Wilhelm Busch, Gerhardt Hauptmann, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Karl Kraus, Theodor Sturm, Richard Dehmel, Frank Wedekind, Ernst Jünger, Arno Schmidt, and Thomas Bernhard. To these may be added, in French literature, Émile Zola, Guy de Maupassant, Jules Laforgue, Joris Karl Huysmans, Marcel Proust, André Gide, and Samuel Beckett, and among English writers, Joseph Conrad (who conceived the artist's task as "above all to make you see" and modeled Axel Heyst's father in Victory [1915] on Schopenhauer), Thomas Hardy (the "immanent will"), and George Gissing. In other literatures there are Tolstoy, Ivan Turgenev, Andrei Bely, August Strindberg, Italo Svevo, and Jorge Luis Borges--the writer who, perhaps, could best of all have endorsed the opening line of Schopenhauer's masterwork: "Die Welt ist meine Vorstellung" (The world is my representation).

FURTHER READINGS ABOUT THE AUTHOR

  • Arthur Hübscher, Schopenhauer-Bibliographie (Stuttgart & Bad Cannstatt: Fromann-Holzboog, 1981).

  • David Cartwright, "An English-Language Bibliography of Works on Schopenhauer," Schopenhauer-Jahrbuch, 68 (1987): 257-266.

  • Eduard Grisebach, Schopenhauer: Geschichte seines Lebens (Berlin: Hofmann, 1876).

  • Helen Zimmern, Arthur Schopenhauer: His Life and His Philosophy (London: Longmans, Green, 1876; revised edition, London: Allen & Unwin, 1932).

  • William Wallace, Life of Arthur Schopenhauer (London: Scott, 1890; reprinted, St. Clair Shores, Mich.: Scholarly Press, 1970).

  • Kuno Fischer, Arthur Schopenhauer (Heidelberg: Winter, 1893); revised as Schopenhauers Leben, Werke und Lehre (Heidelberg: Winter, 1898).

  • Walther Schneider, Schopenhauer: Eine Biographie (Vienna: Bermann-Fischer, 1937).

  • Arthur Hübscher, Arthur Schopenhauer: Ein Lebensbild (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1938).

  • Volker Spierling, ed., Schopenhauer im Denken der Gegenwart (Munich: Piper, 1987).

  • Die Schopenhauer-Welt: Ausstellung der Staatsbibliotek Preuzischer Kulturbesitz und der Stadt- und Universitätsbibliotek Frankfurt am Main zu Arthur Schopenhauers 200. Geburtstag (Frankfurt am Main: Kramer, 1988).

  • Bernhard Adamy, "Künstlerphilosophie par excellence: Zur Schopenhauer-Rezeption der deutschen Literatur," Schopenhauer-Jahrbuch (1988): 483-496.

  • Philip Alperson, "Schopenhauer and Musical Revelation," Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 40 (Winter 1981): 155-166.

  • J. O. Bailey, Thomas Hardy and the Cosmic Mind: A New Reading of "The Dynasts" (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1956).

  • Bernard Bykhovskii, Schopenhauer and the Ground of Existence, translated by Philip Moran (Amsterdam: Grüner, 1984).

  • William Caldwell, Schopenhauer's System in Its Philosophical Significance (Edinburgh & London: Blackwood, 1896).

  • David Cartwright, "Kant, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche on the Morality of Pity," Journal of the History of Ideas, 45, no. 1 (1984): 83-98.

  • John Churchill, "Wittgenstein's Adaptation of Schopenhauer," Southern Journal of Philosophy, 21 (1983): 489-502.

  • Frederick Copleston, Arthur Schopenhauer, Philosopher of Pessimism (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1946; reprinted, London: Search Press, 1975).

  • Raymond Didier, Schopenhauer (Paris: Seuil, 1979).

  • S. Morris Engel, "Schopenhauer's Impact on Wittgenstein," Journal of the History of Ideas, 7 (1969): 285-302.

  • Michael Fox, ed., Schopenhauer: His Philosophical Achievement (Brighton, U.K.: Harvester, 1980).

  • Patrick Gardiner, Schopenhauer (Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1963).

  • Helen Garwood, Thomas Hardy: An Illustration of the Philosophy of Schopenhauer (Philadelphia: Winston, 1911).

  • A. Phillips Griffiths, "Wittgenstein and the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason," Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, supplementary volume L (1976): 1-20.

  • D. W. Hamlyn, Schopenhauer (London: Routledge, 1980).

  • Gabriele von Heesen-Cremer, "Zum Problem des Kulturpessimismus: Schopenhauer-Rezeption bei Künstlern und Intellektuellen 1871-1918," in Ideengeschichte und Kunstwissenschaft: Philosophie und bildende Kunst im Kaiserreich, edited by Ekkehard Mai, Stephan Waetzoldt, and Gerd Wolandt (Berlin, 1983), pp. 45-70.

  • Hilde Hein, "Schopenhauer and Platonic Ideas," Journal of the History of Philosophy, 4 (1966): 133-144.

  • Erich Heller, The Ironic German: A Study of Thomas Mann (London: Secker & Warburg, 1958).

  • Max Horkheimer, "Die Aktualität Schopenhauers," Schopenhauer-Jahrbuch, 42 (1961): 12-25; translated as "Schopenhauer Today," in The Critical Spirit: Essays in Honor of Herbert Marcuse, edited by Robert K. Wolff and Barrington Moore (Boston: Beacon Press, 1967), pp. 124-141.

  • Arthur Hübscher, Denker gegen den Strom: Schopenhauer gestern--heute--morgen (Bonn: Bouvier, 1973).

  • Christopher Janaway, Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).

  • Gerald Judzinski, Leiden an der "Natur": Thomas Bernhards metaphysische Weltdeutung im Spiegel der Philosophie Schopenhauers (Frankfurt am Main & New York: Lang, 1984).

  • Yasuo Kamata, Der junge Schopenhauer: Genese des Grundgedankens der Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (Frankfurt am Main & Munich: Alber, 1988).

  • Fritz Kaufmann, Thomas Mann: The World as Will and Representation (Boston: Beacon Press, 1957).

  • Israel Knox, The Aesthetic Theories of Kant, Hegel, and Schopenhauer (New York: Humanities Press, 1958).

  • Búrge Kristiansen, Thomas Manns Zauberberg und Schopenhauers Metaphysik (Bonn: Bouvier, 1986).

  • Bryan Magee, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983).

  • Thomas Mann, Schopenhauer (Stockholm: Bermann-Fischer, 1938).

  • Sigrid McLaughlin, Schopenhauer in Russland: Zur literarischen Rezeption bei Turgenev (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1984).

  • McLaughlin, "Tolstoy and Schopenhauer," California Slavic Studies, 5 (1970): 187-245.

  • Franz Mockrauer, "Unknown Schopenhauer Documents," Times Literary Supplement, 27 June 1936.

  • Friedrich Nietzsche, Schopenhauer als Erzieher, volume 3 of his Der Fall Wagner; Gotzen-Dammerung; Nietzsche contra Wagner (Chemnitz: Schmeitzer, 1874); translated by R.J. Hollingdale as "Schopenhauer as Educator," in Untimely Meditations by Nietzsche (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).

  • John Oxenford, "Iconoclasm in German Philosophy," Westminster Review, new series 3 (1853): 388-407.

  • Alexis Philonenko, Schopenhauer: Une philosophie de la tragédie (Paris: Vrin, 1980).

  • Otto Pöggeler, "Schopenhauer und das Wesen der Kunst," Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung, 14 (1960): 353-389.

  • Ulrich Pothast, Die eigentlich metaphysische Tätigkeit über Schopenhauers Ästhetik und ihre Anwendung durch Samuel Beckett (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1982).

  • T. J. Reed, "Kafka und Schopenhauer: Philosophisches Denken und dichterisches Bild," Euphorion, 59 (1956): 160-172.

  • Clément Rosset, L'Estétique de Schopenhauer (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969).

  • Alfred Schmidt, Idee und Weltwille: Schopenhauer als Kritiker Hegels (Munich: Hanser, 1988).

  • Schmidt, Die Wahrheit im Gewande der Lüge: Schopenhauers Religionsphilosophie (Munich: Piper, 1986).

  • Jean W. Sedlar, India in the Mind of Germany: Schelling, Schopenhauer and Their Times (Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1982).

  • Georg Simmel, Schopenhauer und Nietzsche: Ein Vortragszyklus (Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 1907); translated by Helmut Loiskandle, Deena Weinstein, and Michael Weinstein as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1986).

  • Bernhard Sorg, Zur literarischen Schopenhauer-Rezeption im 19. Jahrhundert (Heidelberg: Winter, 1975).

  • Volker Spierling, ed., Materialien zu Schopenhauers "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung" (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1984).

  • J. P. Stern, "The Aesthetic Re-Interpretation: Schopenhauer," in his Re-Interpretations: Seven Studies in Nineteenth-Century German Literature (London: Thames and Hudson, 1964), pp. 156-207.

  • Alan Walker, "Schopenhauer and Music," Times Literary Supplement, 3 January 1975, pp. 11-12.

  • Julian Young, "Schopenhauer's Critique of Kantian Ethics," Kantstudien, 75 (1984): 191-212.

  • Young, "The Standpoint of Eternity: Schopenhauer on Art," Kantstudien, 78, no. 4 (1987): 425-441.

  • Young, Willing and Unwilling: A Study in the Philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1987).

    Papers:
    Schopenhauer left many manuscripts and notes for revision to his executor, Julius Frauenstädt. The notes have been lost, but the manuscripts are part of the PreuBischer Kulturbesitz of the Staatsbibliothek, Berlin. There is also a sizable collection of manuscripts and letters in the Schopenhauer-Archiv, Frankfurt am Main.

    Written by: Martin Donougho, University of South Carolina

    Source: Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 90: German Writers in the Age of Goethe, 1789-1832. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Edited by James Hardin, University of South Carolina and Christoph E. Schweitzer, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The Gale Group, 1989. pp. 291-298.

    Source Database: Dictionary of Literary Biography



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