Farber et al

Constitutional Law 3rd edition

Table of Contents

Dedication iii

Preface v

Summary of Contents vii

Table of Cases xxxi

Chapter 1. A Prologue on Constitutional History.

1 Section 1. The Founding Generation: The Constitution and the Bill of Rights, 1787-1791 p.3
Section 2. The Marshall Court's Nationalist Vision, 1801-1835 11
Section 3. States' Rights, Slavery, and the Taney Court, 1836-1864 15
Section 4. Reconstruction and the Ambiguous Triumph
of Abolition, 1864-1896 ' 19
Section 5. The Labor Movement, Progressivism, and Rights For Women And Blacks,1896-1937 24
Section 6. The New Deal, the Court-Packing Controversy,
and the Carolene Court,1937-1953 31
Section 7. The Warren Court and the Triumph of the
Civil Rights Movement, 1953-1969 38
Section 8. The Nixon Court: Pragmatic Legal Process
and Women's Rights, 1969-1987 44
Section 9. The Post-Civil Rights Court, 1987-Now 50
Appendix: Recent Justices 55

Chapter 2. An Introduction to Constitutional Decisionmaking 59

Section 1. Brown v. Board of Education: A Case Study. 59

A. The Fourteenth Amendment and Race: 1865-1912 60

Plessy v.Ferguson 63

Notes on Plessy and the Constitutionality of State-Mandated Racial Segregation 66

B. The Road to Brown 69

C. The End of Separate but Equal


Brownv.Board of Education 78

Bolling v. Sharpe 81

Notes on Brown, Bolling, and the Role of Judicial Review. 82

Section 2. The Supreme Court's Role in Our Political System. 85

A. Bases for Judicial Review 85

Marburyv.Madison 86

Notes on Marbury and the Power of Judicial Review. 91

B. The Court's Supremacy in Constitutional Interpretation? 94

Cooperv.Aaron 96

Edwin Meese, III, The Law of the Constitution. 97

Are Other Government Officials Required To Follow the Supreme Court's Interpretation of the Constitution? 97

C. After Brown: Evaluation and Critique. 99

FromBrownI I toSwann 99

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 101

In Swann's Wake: Notes on Affirmative Remedies in Public Rights Litigation 102

2. Drawing the Line: From Swann to Pitts. 104

Milliken v.Bradley 10

Freemanv.Pitts 108

Note on the Future of Brown I and II. 110

3. Has Brown Made a Difference? A Good Difference? 113

A Transitional Note on Constitutional Law and Legal Education 118

Section 3. Brown and Theories of Constitutional Decisionmaking 119

A. Originalist Theories of Judicial Review. 120

1. Textualist Theory 121

2. Original Understanding 126

Robert H. Bork, The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of the Law 127

Problem 2-1: Is Brown Consistent with the Original

Understanding of the Fourteenth Amendment? 129

3. Purposive Theory 135

Robert H. Bork, The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of the Law 136

Note on original Purpose and Translating Goals from

One Era to the Next 137

B. Legal Process Theories of Judicial Review. 138

John Hart Ely, Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of JudicialReview 140

Notes on Representation Reinforcement and

Public Choice Theory. 145

Problem 2-2: Representation-Reinforcing Judicial Review of Affirmative Action.148

Note on Other Proceduralist Theories of Judicial Review 149

Note on the "Passive Virtues" and "Minimalist" Review. 150

B. Evolutive Theories of Judicial Review. 152

1.Republican Theories: Translation and Constitutional Synthesis. 153

Bruce Ackerman, Constitutional Politics/Constitutional Law 155

Note on Constitutional Moments and Republican Synthesis 156

2. Radical Feminism and Critical Race Theory 157

Robin West, Constitultional Skepticism 160

Note on Constitutional Skepticism and Returning Constitutional Law to "The People" 164

3. Common Law and Pragmatic Theories. 165

Ernest Young, Rediscovering Conservatism: Burkean Political Theory and Constitutional Interpretation 166

Note on Pragmatism as Another Resource for Common Law Constitutionalism 168

James Bradley Thayer, John Marshall 171

Problem 2-3: The Constitutionality of State Term Limits on Federal Officers 173

Chapter 3. The Constitution and Racial Discrimination

Section 1. Racial Classifications After Brown. 181

A. Facial Racial Classifications That Disadvantage Minorities or Evidence Racial Hostility 181

Loving v. Virginia 182

Notes on Loving and Government Actions Classifying by Race. 185

Problem 3-1: Racial Classifications in Law Enforcement andAdoption 189

B. Facially Neutral Classifications (Discriminatory Intent

and Effect) 190

Yick Wo v.Hopkins 190

Notes on Yick Wo and Discriminatory Intent. 192

Washingtonv.Davis 196

Notes on Davis and Proving Discriminatory Intent. 201

C. Concluding Thoughts About Statutes That Have Discriminatory Effects 205

Charles Lawrence, III, The Id, the Ego, and Equal Protection: Reckoning with Unconscious Racism 207

Problems Concerning Discriminatory Intent. 211

Section 2. The State Action Doctrine as a Limit on the Judicial

Power To Address Racial Discrimination. 212

A. Introduction 212

B. State Action: The Public/Private Distinction Today. 214

1. Private Actors and Public Functions 214

2. State Encouragement of or Entanglement with Private Actors 219

Shelleyv.Kraemer 219

Notes on Shelley 22l

MooseLodge No.l07 v. lrvis 225

NotesonMooseLodge 228

3. Toward a Synthesis in State Action Case Law? 232

Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Co. 232

Notes on Edmonson and the Problem of State Action 237

MoreProblemsonStateAction 239

C. State Action Under State Constitutions. 239

Section 3. The Affirmative Action Controversy: Benign Racial Classifications or Reverse Discrimination? 240

A. Affirmative Action and the Equal Protection Clause: 1978-88 241

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke. 241

Fullilove v.Klutznick : 244

Wygant v. Jacks-on Board of Education. 245

Note: Affirmative Action in a Broader Theoretical Context. 246

Thomas Sowell, Civil Rights: Rhetoric or Reality? 247

Patricia Williams, Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. FCC: RegroupinginSingularTimes 248

Notes on Specific Arguments in the Afflffilative Action Debate 250

B. The Triumph of "Skepticism," "Consistency," and "Congruence" in the Supreme Court,1989-1995 256

City of Richmond v. JA. Croson Co. 256

Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. Federal Communica(ions Comm 'n 263

Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena 264

Notes on Croson and Adarand 272

Problems on Affirmative Action After Croson and Adarand 274

C. Facially Neutral Classifications and "Majority-Minority" Electoral Districting: Affirmative 'Action, Reverse

Discrimination, or Something Else Altogether? 275

Shaw v.Reno 279

Notes on Shaw and the Districting Conundrum. 291

A Concluding Thought: Group Rights, Apology, and Reparations 297

Chapter 4.

Sex and Gender Discrimination and Other Equal

Protection Concerns 299

Section 1. Minimal Equal Protection Scrutiny (The
Rational-Basis Test) 300

Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York. 302

Notes on Railway Express and the Rational-Basis Standard. 305

Federal Communications Comm 'n v. Beach Communications, Inc. 308

Problem 4-1: Applying Rational-Basis Scrutiny to Driver's Licensing 309

Note on the Court's Application of Heightened Scrutiny to Non-Race Classifications: A "Double Standard"? 310

United States Department of Agriculture v. Moreno 313

Section 2. Sex~ and Gender-Based Discrimination. 314

A. Women Outside the Constitution: The Traditional Jurisprudence of Difference 314

Bradwel v.Illinois 316

B. The Jurisprudence of Equal Treatment and Heightened Scrutiny of Sex-Based Distinctions. 320

Wendy Webster Williams, Equality's Riddle: Pregnancy and the Equal Treatment/Special Treatment Debate 322

1.From Rational Basis to Imtermediate Scrutiny (and Beyond?) in Gender Cases ; 323

Reedv.Reed 324

Frontiero v.Richardson 324

Notes on the Race Analogy and Whether Sex-Based Classifications Should Be Subject to Strict Scrutiny. 327

Note on the Court's Sex-Discrimination Cases, 1973-76 331

Craig v. Boren 332

Note on the Court's "Middle Tier "Scrutiny 337

Richard Epstein, The Rule of Sex-Blind Jurisprudence Isn't Always Fair. 337

Califano v. Webster 338

J:E.B.v.Alabama ex rel. T.B. 339

Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan 340

Note on Theories of Cultural Feminism and Sociobiology 341

United States v. Virginia 343

Note on the Current State of the Court's Sex Discrimination Jurisprudence. 348

2. Deference to Traditional Gender Classifications Based Upon "Real Differences" 348

Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County 349

Note on the Gendered Treatment of Rape 350

Parham v. Hughes 351

Rostkerv.Goldberg 352

Nguyenv.INS 354

Note on Rostker, Nguyen, and Judicial Deference to Certain National Legislative and Executive Policies. 356

Notes on the Military's Exclusion of Women from Combat Roles 358

3. Classifications That Have a Disparate Impact Upon Women 360

Geduldigv.Aiello 360

Personnel Administrator of Massachusetts v. Feeney 361

Notes on Feeney and Discriminatory Impact on Women. 363

Note on Statutory Rights Against Sex and Pregnancy Discrimination in Private and Public Employment 365

Problem 4-2: Frontier Issues in Statutory and Constitutional Discrimination on the Basis of Sex or Gender 366

C. Critiques of Abstract Equality and the Emergence of a Jurisprudence of Difference 366

Problem 4-3: Maternity Leave Statutes 368

Brief of the American Civil Liberties Union et alia, Amic Curiae, Guerra 369

Brief Amici Curiae of Coalition for Reproductive Equality in the Workplace; Betty Friedan; e talia, Guerra 370

Note on Affirmative Action for Women in the Workplace. 372

Problem 4-4: Is Sex Segregation in Schools Ever Constitutional? 373

Catharine A. MacKinnon, Toward a Feminist Theory of the State 374

Notes on Radical and Critical Feminist Theories. 377

Bray v. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic 381

Section 3. What Level of Scrutiny for Other "Suspicious" Classifications? ! 383

A. Wealth. 383

ML.B.v.S.L.J. 385

B. Physical or Mental Disability 385

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center 386

Note on Cleburne and Equal Protection Tiers 392

Heller v.Doe 394

C. Sexual Orientation. 395

1. Heightened Scrutiny? 396

Watkin sv. UnitedStatesArmy 397

Note on Whether Sexual Orientation Should Be a “Suspect Classification” 398

Problem 4-5: The Constitutionality of an Antigay Initiative 401

2. Rational Basis 402

Romer v.Evans 402

Notes on Evans and Its Implications for Judicial Review of Antigay State Policies 408

Note on Judicial Review of Popular Initiatives and Referenda 412

Problem 4-6: Don't Ask, Don't Tell. 413

3. Discrimination Against Gay People as Sex Discrimination? 415

Baehr v. Lewin 415

Notes on Baehr and the Same-Sex Marriage Debate 418

Baker v. State 420

Concluding Note on Equal Protection 422

Chapter 5. Protecting Fundamental Rights 425

Section 1. Should Courts Ever Enforce Unenumerated Rights? 427

Note on the Historical Roots of Unenumerated Rights. 427

TheSlaughterHouseCases 428

Notes on the Aftermath of The Slaughter House Cases 429

Palko v.Connecticut 431

Adamsonv.California 433

Notes on the Incorporation Debate 437

Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson 439

Notes on Skinner and Protecting Implied Fundamental Rights 442

A World Without Implied Fundamental Rights: A Note on the Social Context of Buck v. Bell and Skinner 443

Note on Unenforced Textual Rights: The Second Amendment 446

Section 2. Protecting Economic Liberty and Property 448

A. Historical Introduction 448

B. The Rise and Decline of Liberty of Contract and Substantive Due Process Review 450

Lochner v. NewYork 450

Notes on Lochner and the Heyday of Substantive Due Process 454

West Coast Hotel v.Parrish 456

Williamson v.Lee Optical 457

Note on State Substantive Due Process 457

C. The Takings Clause 458

D. Notes on the Original Understanding of the Takings Clause. 459

Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York. 461

Notes on Penn Central and the Takings Clause 465

Nollan v. California Coastal Commission 466

Dolan v. City of Tigard 467

Notes on Nollan, Dolan, and the Possible Revival of Active Review of Economic Regulations 468

Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council 469

Notes on Lucas and the Takings Revival 473

Note on Retroactivity and the Takings Clause 475

Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency 476

Notes on Lake Tahoe and the Current State of Takings Law 479

Problem 5-1: Takings and Biodiversity 480

Section 3. Equal Protection and "Fundamental Interests" 481

A. Voting 483

Reynolds v. Sims 485

Notes on Reynolds and the "Fundamental Right" To Vote 488

Problem 5-2: Political Gerrymandering 489

Bushv.Gore 490

Notes on Bush v.Gore 490

B. Basic Rights for the Least Advantaged 496

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez 496

Plyler v. Doe 501

Notes on Rodriguez and Plyler 502

Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby. 504

Notes on Edgewood, State Constitutional Protections, and Constitutional Balancing 506

Problem 5-3: Racial Disparities and State Constitutional Law 511

C. The Right To Travel 511

Shapiro v. Thompson 511

Saenz v. Roe 512

Notes on Saenz 516

Section 4. Fundamental Privacy Rights 517

Meyer v. Nebraska 518

Note: What Kinds of "Liberty" Are Substantively Protected by the Due Process Clause? 519

A. Contraception, Marriage, and Family 520

Poe v, Ullman 521

A Note on Poe and Deadlocked Political Processes 525

Griswold v.Connecticut 525

Notes on Griswold and the Right of Privacy 531

Robert H. Bork, Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems 533

Note on the Ninth Amendment 536

Note on the Fundamental Right To Marry 539

Troxel v.Granville 540

Problem 5-4: State Regulation of Sexuality 542

B. Abortion. 542

Roe v.Wade 542

Notes on Roe and the Abortion Controversy 547

Reva Siegel, Reasoning from the Body: A Historical Perspective on Abortion Regulation and Questions of Equal Protection 549

Note on Abortion Regulation as Sex Discrimination. 550

Note: The Abortion Right from Roe to Casey 551

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services 553

Hodgson v. Minnesota 553

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey 554

Notes on Casey and the Fundamental Right To Abortion 566

Stenberg v. Carhart 570

Problem 5-5: Prohibition of Sex-Specific Abortions 571

Consensual Sexual Activity 572

Bowers v. Hardwick 572

Notes on Bowers and Privacy for Gay Men and Lesbians 578

Commonwealth of Kentucky v. Wasson 580

Problem 5-6: Should Bowers v. Hardwick Be Overruled? 582

Section 5. The “Right to Die” 582

Washington v .Glucksberg 582


ection. e g tole. 582

Notes on the "Right To Die" Case 590

Problem 5-7: Human Cloning 591

Section 6. Procedural Due Process 592

A. Introductory Notes on Procedural Due Process 592

Goldbergv.Kelly 596

B. Defining “Liberty” and “Property 597

BoardofRegentsv.Roth 597

Notes on Defining "Property" and "Liberty" 600

C. Defining "What Process Is Due" 604

Mathews v. Eldridge 604

Notes on Defining "What Process Is Due" 607

Problem 5-8: Issues of Procedural Due Process 609

Problem 5-9: Reviewing Fundamental Rights 610

Chapter 6. The First Amendment 613

Section 1. Free Speech and Competing Values 613

Note on the Original Understanding of Freedom of Speech 614


Texas v. Johnson 617

R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul 619

Notes on First Amendment Values Implicated in Johnson and R.A.V. 624

United States v. O'Brien 628

Note on the "Imperial" First Amendment 629

Problem 6-1: Drafting a Rule Regulating Law School Posters 630

Section 2. Regulation of Harmful Messages 631

A. Illegal Advocacy 631

Masses Publishing Co. v. Patten 631

Schenck v. United States 632

Abrams v. United States 633

A Note on Subversive Speech from 1920-1960 637

Gitlow v. New York 637

Whitney v. California 638

Brandenburg v. Ohio 641

Notes on Brandenburg 642

B. Defamation and Privacy 645

NewYorkTimesCo.v.Sullivan 645

Gertz v.Robert Welch, Inc. 649

Hustler Magazine v. Falwell 649

Notes on New York Times and Libel Law 650

Notes on Post-New York Times Developments in Defamation Law 652

Bartnicki v. Vopper 657

Notes on Bartnicki 659

Problem 6-2: Free Speech versus Privacy 660

C. Obscenity and Indecent Speech 661

Millerv.California 661

Paris Adult Theatre Iv. Slaton 664

Notes on Regulating Sexually Explicit Materials 665

Butler v. Regina 668

A Note on Feminist Anti-Pornography Theories 669

Problem 6-3: Feminist Anti-Pornography Ordinances 670

City of Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc. 671

Notes on Renton 674

Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. 67

City of Erie v. Pap's A.M 676

D. Fighting Words, Captive Audiences, and Hate Speech 677

1. The Fighting Words Exception, 677

Chaplinsky v.New Hampshire 677

Cohen v. California 677

Notes on Cohen and Offensive Speech 681

2. An Exception for Hate Speech? 682

Beauharnai sv.Illinois 682

Wisconsinv.Mitchell 683

Note on the Hate Speech Debate 684

Problem 6-4: University Regulation of Hate Speech 686

Problem 6-5: May the State Prohibit Sexually HarassingRemarks? 688

3. Offensive Speech in the Electronic Media 688

Federal Communications Comm 'n v. Pacifica Foundation 688

Note on Regulation of Indecent Speech in the Electronic Media: Sable, Denver Area, Reno v. ACLU 689

E. Commercial Speech 691

Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council 691

Notes on Virginia Board 695

Posadas De Puerto Rico Associates v. Tourism Company of PuertoRico 697

44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island 698

F. Campaign Expenditures 700

Buckley v .Valeo 700

First National Bank v. Bellotti 703

Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce 703

I Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government 704

Notes on Regulating Campaign Finance 704

Problem 6-6: Electioneering Communications 708

Note on Judicial Elections 708

Note on Equality of Access as a Government Goal in Media Regulation 710

Section 3. Speech with a Government Nexus 713

A. Speech on Government Property and the Public Forum Doctrine 713

United States v. Grace 714

Hill v. Colorado 715

Notes on Grace, Hill, and the Traditional Public Forum 716

Ward v. Rock Against Racism 718

Notes on Rock Against Racism and Time, Place and Manner Regulation 721

Perry Educ. Ass'n v. Perry Local Educators’ Ass'n 722

International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee. 722

Notes on Lee and Evolving Public Forum Doctrine 728

Problems on the Public Forum Doctrine 729

B. Speech by Public Employees and Recipients of Government Funds 730

1.Speech by Public Employees 732

2. Political Conduct/Status of Government Employees 732

3. Unconstitutional Conditions 734

Rust v.Sullivan 735

Rosenberger v. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia 737

Notes on Unconstitutional Conditions 738

National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley 741

LegaI Services Corp .v. Velazquez 741

Notes on Velazquez 746

Problems on Unconstitutional Conditions 746

C. Speech Within Government Institutions 747

Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier 748

Notes on Speech Within Government Institutions 751

Problem 6-13: Don't Ask, Don't Tell Policies 753

Section 4. Process-Based Protections for Speech 754

A. Prior Restraints and Permit Systems 754

Near v .Minnesota 754

Shuttlesworth v. City of Birmingham 755

New York Times Co. v. United States 756

Problem 6-14: The H-Bomb Case 757

Madsen v. Women's Health Center, Inc. 757

Notes on Madsen 761

B. (Due Process) Vagueness and the First Amendment. 763

Gentile v. State Bar of Nevada 764

City of Chicago v. Morales 765

C. (Equal Protection) Overbreadth and the First Amendment 766

Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc. 767

Notes on Jews for Jesus and Overbreadth 769

Los Angeles Police Department v. United Reporting Corp. 769

Section 5. Freedom of Association 770

NAACP v.ClaiborneHardware Co. 770

Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte 771

Boy Scout sof America v. Dale 773

Note: Can Rotary/Roberts and Dale/Hurley Be Reconciled? 776

Section 6. The Religion Clauses 777

A. Free Exercise 778

Stansbury v. Marks 778

Notes on Stansbury 778

Wisconsinv. Yoder 780

Notes on Yoder and Religious Exemptions 780

Employment Division, Department of Human Resources v. Smith 781

Michael McConnell, Free Exercise Revisionism and the Smith Decision 785

Notes on Smith and Free Exercise 787

Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. Hialeah 789

City of Boerne v.Flores 789

B. The Establishment Clause 791

1. Basic Premises 791

Everson v. Board of Education 791

Wallace v. Jaffree 794

Notes on Everson, Jaffree, and Establishment Clause Analysis 795

Lemon v. Kurtzman 797

2. Governmental Endorsement of Religion 797

County of Allegheny v. American Civil Liberties Union 791

Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board v. Pinette 799

Notes on Allegheny County and the Lemon Debate 799

Note on the School Prayer Cases 800

Lee v. Weisman 800

Notes on Weisman and Establishment Doctrine 807

Santa Fe Indep. School Dist. v. Doe. 808

Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School Dist.v.Grumet 809

3. Financial Support of Religious Programs. 810

Zelman v. Simmons-Harris 812

Notes on Zelman 817

Rosenberger v. Rector and Visitors of the University oj Virginia 818

Good News Club v. Milford Central School 819


Chapter 7. Federalism: Congressional Power and State Authority 821

Section 1. Enumerated Federal Power, Reserved State Authority:

Introduction 821

McCulloch v .Maryland 822

Notes on Constitutional Reasoning in McCulloch: Original Intent, Constitutional Structures

and Representation Reinforcement. 831

US. Term Limits,Inc.v. Thornton 834 Note on Theories of Federal/State Sovereignty and on the

Advantages of a Federalist Arrangement 835

Note on the Original Understanding

Section 2. Congressional Power Under the Commerce Clause 841

Problem 7-1: Regulation of Public Accommodations Under the Commerce Clause 841

Gibbons v. Ogden 841

Notes on Gibbons and the Court's Articulation of Commerce Clause Limits on National Power 844

United States v.E.C.Knight 848

Champion v. Ames (The Lottery Case) 849

Swift & Co.v. United States 850

Houston, East & West Texas Railway v. United States (The Shreveport Rate Case) 851

Hammer v. Dagenhart (The Child Labor Case) 851

Notes on The Child Labor Case and the Court's Narrow View of the Commerce Clause 853

Note on the New Deal's Early Difficulties Meeting Commerce Clause Scrutiny, 1934-36 854

National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. 857

United States v. Darby 858

Wickardv.Filburn 861

Notes on Civil Rights and Federalism 862

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 863

Katzenbachl1.McClung 865

Notes on the New Deal/Warren Court Dilution of Commerce Clause Limiting Doctrines 866

United States v. Lopez 869

Notes on Lopez and the Commerce Clause's New Teeth 880

Problem 7-2: The Reach of Commerce Clause Power After Lopez 882

Section 3. Congressional Authority To Promote Civil Rights. 883

Transitional Note: Looking Outside the Commerce Power 883

A. The Reconstruction Amendments and Federal Statutes Adopted Under Them 884

The Civil Rights Cases 885

Notes on The Civil Rights Cases 890

Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co. 892

Notes on Jones and Thirteenth Amendment Power 894

B. The "Second Reconstruction" and the Voting Rights Act. 895

SouthCarolinav.Katzenbach 897

Katzenbach v .Morgan 898

Oregon v. Mitchell 902

City of Rome v. UnitedStates 905

Notes on Rome and Congressional Enforcement Power 906

Problem 7-3: Legislative Fact-finding and Fourteenth AmendmentPersons 910

C. The Religious Freedom Restoration Act. 910

I City of Boerne v. Flores 911

Notes on Boerne and Congressional Enforcement Power 919

D. Congressional Power and the Eleventh Amendment 922

1.An Overview of the Eleventh Amendment 922

2. May Congress Abrogate States' Eleventh Amendment Immunity? 923

Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida \ 924

Alden v. Maine 926

Notes on the Expanding State Immunity to Suit 927

3. Congress's Fourteenth Amendment Authority To Abrogate State Eleventh Amendment Immunity After Boerne 929

Florida Prepaid Post secondary Education Expense Board v. College Sav. Bank 930

Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents 930

Board of Trustees v. Garrett 931

Notes on the Post-Boerne Cases 935

E. The Violence Against Women Act 937

United States v. Morrison 937

Notes on Morrison and the Values of Federalism 948

F. The 1972 Extension of Title VII to the States: A Brief Case Study 952

Section 4. Beyond the Commerce Power and the Civil Rights Enforcement Power 953

A. Taxing Power. 953

B. Spending Power 954

South Dakota v. Dole 955

Notes on Dole and Conditional Federal Spending 960

C. Powers Granted to Congress Outside of Article I: A Look at the Treaty Power 962

Missouri v. Holland 962

Note on the Treaty Power and Original Intent 965

Problem 7-4: Summary Problem on National Powers 967

Section 5. Intergovernmental Immunities and Congressional Power 967

A. Introduction 967

B. State Immunity from Direct National Regulation 969

National League of Cities v. Usery 969

Note on the Constitutional Experiment in

National League of Cities 970

Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority 971

Note on Garcia: Should the Court Abstain from Enforcing Federalism-Based Limits on Congress? 975

Note on Intergovernmental Tax Immunities 978

South Carolina v. Baker 979

C. State Immunity from National Commandeering 980

NewYorkv. United States 980

Notes on New York and Process Federalism 988

Saikrishna Prakash, Field Office Federalism 989

Printz v. United States 990

Notes on Printz, Federalism, and Original Intent 997

Reno v. Condon 998

Problem 7-5: What Precedents Ought To Be Overruled Next? 999

Section 6. Nationalist Limitations Upon State Regulatory Authority 1000

A. Constitutional Principles, Policies, and History 1000

Gibbons v .Ogden 1001

Note on Dual Federalism as a Limit on State Power 1004

Cooley v. Board of Wardens of the Port of Philadelphia 1005

Note on the Evolution of the Dormant Commerce Clause from Cooley to the Modern Era 1006

Note on Theories Why the Court Should Enforce the "Dormant" Feature of the Commerce Clause 1007

B. Modern Dormant Commerce Clause Doctrine 1010

1. Discrimination Against Interstate Commerce 1010

City of Philadeiphia v. New Jersey 1012

Notes on City of Philadelphia and the Court's Activism in Policing Discriminations Against Commerce 1017

Note on the Post-Philadelphia Waste Cases 1019

C & A Carbone, Inc. v. Town of Clarkstown 1019

Note on Interstate Taxation of Interstate Commerce 1021

Note on State Laws Having Extraterritorial Effect 1022

2. State Rules Burdening Interstate Commerce 1023

Kassel v.Consolidated Freightways Corp. 1024

Notes on Kassel and Judicial Balancing To Evaluate State Laws Burdening Interstate Commerce 1030

Problem 7-6: Dormant Commerce Clause Quandaries 1033

3. The Market Participant and Other Possible Exceptions 1034

West Lynn Creamery, Inc. v. Healy. 1035

Note: Should State Subsidies Be Exempted from Dormant Commerce Clause Regulation? 1036

C. Should the Dormant Commerce Clause Be Laid To Rest? Alternative Limitations on States 1037

Camps Newfound/Owatonna, Inc. v. Town of Harrison 1037

1.The Import-Export Clause 1038

2.The Privileges and Immunities Clause 1039

Corfield v. Coryell 1039

United Building & Construction Trades Council of Camden County v. Mayor and Council of Camden 1040

Notes Contrasting the Dormant Commerce Clause and the Privileges and Immunities Clause 1043

3. The Supremacy Clause and Preemption 1045

Note on Preemption and Constitutional Norms 1046

Revisiting the Dormant Commerce Clause Cases 1047

Note on Triadic Federalism: Indian Tribal Sovereignty 1047

Chapter 8. Separation of Powers 1051

Gerhard Casper, An Essay in Separation of Powers.. Some Early Versions and Practices 1058

Note on Early Interactions Between the Branches of the National Government, 1790-1798 1061

Section 1. Issues of Executive Aggrandizement (The Imperial Presidency) 1064

A. The General Post-New Deal Framework (Domestic Arena 1065

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (The Steel Seizure Case) 1065

Note on Frameworks for Thinking About Separation of Powers Issues 1074

Problem 8-1: Does the President Have the Authority To "Impound" Funds Appropriated by Congress? 1077

B. Foreign Relations (Executive Agreements and War Powers) 1079

United States v. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. 1079

United States v. Belmont 1080

The War Powers Resolution and Its Background 1081

Notes on the War Powers Resolution: Is It Constitutional? 1084

Problem 8-2: The War Powers Resolution, Separation of powers and Potential Hostilities Against Iraq 1088

Dames & Moore v. Regan 1089

Note on the Iranian Hostages Case and Precedent 1091

C. Executive Privileges and Immunities 1092

United States v. Nixon 1092

Notes on Executive Privileges and the Nixon Tapes Case 1097

Note on Congressional Subpoenas of Presidential Documents 1099

Nixon v. Administrator of General Services 1099

Nixon v.Fitzgerald 1100

Clinton v. Jones 1101

Notes on the Presidential Immunity Cases 1103

Note on Congress's Impeachment Power: The Case of William Jefferson Clinton 1105

Section 2. Issues of Legislative Overreaching (The Meddlesome Congress) 1107

A. "Excessive" Congressional Delegations to Agencies and to the President 1107

Note on the Decline and Fall of the Nondelegation Doctrine 1108

Mistretta v.United States 1111

Whitman v. American Trucking Ass'ns 1112

Note on the Rise of the Legislative Veto: Congress Can Delegate Its Cake and Eat It Too 1112

Immigration & Naturalization Service v. Chadha 1114

Notes on Chadha and the Supreme Court's New Direction in Separation of Powers Cases 1122

Note on Severability 1125

Clinton v.City of NewYork 1127

Notes on Clinton v. City of New York 1134

B. Congressional Versus Presidential Power To Control "Executive" Officials 1136

Myers v.UnitedStates 1136

Humphrey's Executor v. United States 1137

Buckley v. Valeo 1138

Bowsher v. Synar 1138

Notes on Myers Through Bowsher: Are Independent Agencies Constitutional? 1143

Problem 8-3: Hybrid Airport Agencies 1146

C. Congressional Authority To Create "Executive" Offices Outside the Presidency 1146

Peter Strauss, The Place of Agencies in Government: Separation of Powers and the Fourth Branch 1147

Morrison v .Olson 1148

Notes on the Independent Counsel Case 1156

Steven Calabresi & Saikrishria Prakash, The President 's Power To Execute the Laws 1159

Note on the Debate About and Implications of the Unitary Executive Thesis 1160

Problem 8-4: Congressional Efforts To Improve Implementation 1162

. Weissv. United States 1162

Section 3. Congressional and Presidential Structuring of Adjudication and Deployment of Article III Judges 1163

A. Assigning Article III Judges Nonjudicial Duties 1164

Mistretta v. UnitedStates 1164

Notes on Mistretta and Junior Varsity Lawmakers 1168

B. Assigning Adjudicative Tasks to Non-Article III Judges (Article I and Article II Courts) 1169

Northern Pipeline Co. v. Marathon Pipe Line Co. 1170

Commodity Futures Trading Commission v. Schor 1171

Note on Schor 1173

ExParteQuirin 1173

Problem 8-5: The Constitutionality of Article II MilitaryCornrnissions 1175

A Note on Delegation Within the Judicial Branch. 1176

C. Congressional Attempts To Alter Federal Judicial Jurisdiction and Judgments 1177

Plau tv. Spendthrift Farm, Inc. 1177

Problem 8-6: Congressional Efforts To Strip Federal Courts of Authority To Require Busing as a Remedy for

Brown Violations 1179

Note on the Textual Arguments for and Against Congress' Power To Restrict Federa1. Jurisdiction 1182

Ex Parte McCardle 1182

Felker v. Turpin 1184

Notes on McCardle and Congress' Authority To Restrict the Supreme Court's Jurisdiction 1184

Note on Congress' Power To Restrict the Jurisdiction of Inferior Federal Courts 1185

Concluding Note-on Theories of Separation of Powers 1187

Chapter 9. Limits on the Judicial.Power 1191

Section 1. The Political Question Doctrine 1192
Luther v. Borden 1193

Giles v. Harris 1193

Colegrove v.Green 1194

Gomillionv.Lightfoot 1195

Bakerv.Carr 1195

Notes on the Po1itica1 Question Doctrine Since Baker 1201

Nixon v. UnitedStates 1206

Problems on Political Questions 1212

A Note on Political Questions and the Guarantee C1ause 1213

A Note on Political Questions and Belated Amendments 1215

Section 2 . "Cases" or "Controversies"

Raines v. Byrd 1224

Notes on Raines v. Byrd 1226

Allen v. Wright 1227

Northeastern Florida Chapter of the Associated General Contractors of America v. Jacksonville 1232

The Anomalies of Allen: Notes on the Incoherence of Modem Standing Doctrine 1233

Lujan v.Defenders of Wildlife 1237

Notes on Defenders of Wildlife and Standing To Enforce Statutes 1241

Federal Election Commission v. Akins 1243

Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services (TOC), Inc. 1244

Notes on Laidlaw and Standing 1247

Section 3. Constitutional Limits on Federal Courts' Remedial Powers 1248

Missouriv. Jenkins (Jenkins II) 1250

Notes on the Kansas City School Desegregation Case and Problems with Structural Injunctions 1251

Missouri v. Jenkins (JenkinsIII) 1253

Concluding Thoughts Ion the Supreme Court as Part of the Political System 1255

Appendices and Index

Appendix 1: The Constitution of the United States [1]

Appendix 2: Constitutional Ratification Materials [19]

Appendix 3: James Madison's Speech to the House of Representatives

Presenting the Propose:d Bill of Rights, June 8,1789 [31]

Index [39]

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