Brandeis University

Politics Department

Professor Peter Woll

Politics 115a

Nov. 27-Dec. 4 Addendum

Class Assignments Part III

Class Assignments Part I

Class Assignments Part II

The Constitution and Racial Discrimination

Congressional Authority To Enforce Civil Rights

Gender Discrimination and Other Equal Protection Concerns

Protecting Fundamental Rights

Equal Protection and Fundamental Interests

Freedom of Expression

Final Examination Review

Chapter 3. The Constitution and Racial Discrimination

Section 1. Racial Classifications After Brown. 181

A. Facial Racial Classifications That Disadvantage Minorities or Evidence Racial Hostility 181

Loving v. Virginia 182

Notes on Loving and Government Actions Classifying by Race. 185

Problem 3-1: Racial Classifications in Law Enforcement andAdoption 189

B. Facially Neutral Classifications (Discriminatory Intent

and Effect) 190

Yick Wo v. Hopkins 190

Notes on Yick Wo and Discriminatory Intent. 192

Washington v. Davis 196

Notes on Davis and Proving Discriminatory Intent. 201

C. Concluding Thoughts About Statutes That Have Discriminatory Effects 205

Charles Lawrence, III, The Id, the Ego, and Equal Protection: Reckoning with Unconscious Racism 207

Problems Concerning Discriminatory Intent. 211

Section 2. The State Action Doctrine as a Limit on the Judicial

Power To Address Racial Discrimination. 212

A. Introduction 212

B. State Action: The Public/Private Distinction Today. 214

1. Private Actors and Public Functions 214

2. State Encouragement of or Entanglement with Private Actors 219

Shelley v. Kraemer 219

Notes on Shelley 22l

Moose Lodge No. l07 v. lrvis 225

Notes on Moose Lodge 228

3. Toward a Synthesis in State Action Case Law? 232

Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Co. 232

Notes on Edmonson and the Problem of State Action 237

More Problems on State Action 239

C. State Action Under State Constitutions. 239

Section 3. The Affirmative Action Controversy: Benign Racial Classifications or Reverse Discrimination? 240

A. Affirmative Action and the Equal Protection Clause: 1978-88 241

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke. 241

Fullilove v.Klutznick : 244

Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education. 245

Note: Affirmative Action in a Broader Theoretical Context. 246

Thomas Sowell, Civil Rights: Rhetoric or Reality? 247

Patricia Williams, Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. FCC: Regrouping in Singular Times 248

Notes on Specific Arguments in the Afflffilative Action Debate 250

B. The Triumph of "Skepticism," "Consistency," and "Congruence" in the Supreme Court,1989-1995 256

City of Richmond v. JA. Croson Co. 256

Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. Federal Communica(ions Comm 'n 263

Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena 264

Notes on Croson and Adarand 272

Problems on Affirmative Action After Croson and Adarand 274

C. Facially Neutral Classifications and "Majority-Minority" Electoral Districting: Affirmative 'Action, Reverse

Discrimination, or Something Else Altogether? 275

Shaw v.Reno 279

Notes on Shaw and the Districting Conundrum. 291

A Concluding Thought: Group Rights, Apology, and Reparations 297

Section 3. Congressional Authority To Promote Civil Rights. 883

Transitional Note: Looking Outside the Commerce Power 883

A. The Reconstruction Amendments and Federal Statutes Adopted Under Them 884

The Civil Rights Cases 885

Notes on The Civil Rights Cases 890

Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co. 892

Notes on Jones and Thirteenth Amendment Power 894

B. The "Second Reconstruction" and the Voting Rights Act. 895

SouthCarolinav.Katzenbach 897

Katzenbach v .Morgan 898

Oregon v. Mitchell 902

City of Rome v. UnitedStates 905

Notes on Rome and Congressional Enforcement Power 906

Problem 7-3: Legislative Fact-finding and Fourteenth AmendmentPersons 910

C. The Religious Freedom Restoration Act. 910

I City of Boerne v. Flores 911

Notes on Boerne and Congressional Enforcement Power 919

Chapter 4.

Sex and Gender Discrimination and Other Equal

Protection Concerns 299

Section 1. Minimal Equal Protection Scrutiny (The

Rational-Basis Test) 300

Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York. 302

Notes on Railway Express and the Rational-Basis Standard. 305

Federal Communications Comm 'n v. Beach Communications, Inc. 308

Problem 4-1: Applying Rational-Basis Scrutiny to Driver's Licensing 309

Note on the Court's Application of Heightened Scrutiny to Non-Race Classifications: A "Double Standard"? 310

United States Department of Agriculture v. Moreno 313

Section 2. Sex~ and Gender-Based Discrimination. 314

A. Women Outside the Constitution: The Traditional Jurisprudence of Difference 314

Bradwel v.Illinois 316

B. The Jurisprudence of Equal Treatment and Heightened Scrutiny of Sex-Based Distinctions. 320

Wendy Webster Williams, Equality's Riddle: Pregnancy and the Equal Treatment/Special Treatment Debate 322

1.From Rational Basis to Imtermediate Scrutiny (and Beyond?) in Gender Cases ; 323

Reedv.Reed 324

Frontiero v.Richardson 324

Notes on the Race Analogy and Whether Sex-Based Classifications Should Be Subject to Strict Scrutiny. 327

Note on the Court's Sex-Discrimination Cases, 1973-76 331

Craig v. Boren 332

Note on the Court's "Middle Tier "Scrutiny 337

Richard Epstein, The Rule of Sex-Blind Jurisprudence Isn't Always Fair. 337

Califano v. Webster 338

J:E.B.v.Alabama ex rel. T.B. 339

Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan 340

Note on Theories of Cultural Feminism and Sociobiology 341

United States v. Virginia 343

Note on the Current State of the Court's Sex Discrimination Jurisprudence. 348

2. Deference to Traditional Gender Classifications Based Upon "Real Differences" 348

Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County 349

Note on the Gendered Treatment of Rape 350

Parham v. Hughes 351

Rostkerv.Goldberg 352

Nguyenv.INS 354

Note on Rostker, Nguyen, and Judicial Deference to Certain National Legislative and Executive Policies. 356

Notes on the Military's Exclusion of Women from Combat Roles 358

3. Classifications That Have a Disparate Impact Upon Women 360

Geduldigv.Aiello 360

Personnel Administrator of Massachusetts v. Feeney 361

Notes on Feeney and Discriminatory Impact on Women. 363

Note on Statutory Rights Against Sex and Pregnancy Discrimination in Private and Public Employment 365

Problem 4-2: Frontier Issues in Statutory and Constitutional Discrimination on the Basis of Sex or Gender 366

C. Critiques of Abstract Equality and the Emergence of a Jurisprudence of Difference 366

Problem 4-3: Maternity Leave Statutes 368

Brief of the American Civil Liberties Union et alia, Amic Curiae, Guerra 369

Brief Amici Curiae of Coalition for Reproductive Equality in the Workplace; Betty Friedan; e talia, Guerra 370

Note on Affirmative Action for Women in the Workplace. 372

Problem 4-4: Is Sex Segregation in Schools Ever Constitutional? 373

Catharine A. MacKinnon, Toward a Feminist Theory of the State 374

Notes on Radical and Critical Feminist Theories. 377

Bray v. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic 381

Section 3. What Level of Scrutiny for Other "Suspicious" Classifications? ! 383

A. Wealth. 383

ML.B.v.S.L.J. 385

B. Physical or Mental Disability 385

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center 386

Note on Cleburne and Equal Protection Tiers 392

Heller v.Doe 394

C. Sexual Orientation. 395

1. Heightened Scrutiny? 396

Watkin sv. United States Army 397

Note on Whether Sexual Orientation Should Be a “Suspect Classification” 398

Problem 4-5: The Constitutionality of an Antigay Initiative 401

2. Rational Basis 402

Romer v.Evans 402

Notes on Evans and Its Implications for Judicial Review of Antigay State Policies 408

Note on Judicial Review of Popular Initiatives and Referenda 412

Problem 4-6: Don't Ask, Don't Tell. 413

3. Discrimination Against Gay People as Sex Discrimination? 415

Baehr v. Lewin 415

Notes on Baehr and the Same-Sex Marriage Debate 418

Baker v. State 420

Concluding Note on Equal Protection 422


Protecting Fundamental Rights

Chapter 5. Protecting Fundamental Rights 425

Section 1. Should Courts Ever Enforce Unenumerated Rights? 427

Note on the Historical Roots of Unenumerated Rights. 427

TheSlaughterHouseCases 428

Notes on the Aftermath of The Slaughter House Cases 429

Palko v.Connecticut 431

Adamsonv.California 433

Notes on the Incorporation Debate 437

Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson 439

Notes on Skinner and Protecting Implied Fundamental Rights 442

A World Without Implied Fundamental Rights: A Note on the Social Context of Buck v. Bell and Skinner 443

Note on Unenforced Textual Rights: The Second Amendment 446

Section 2. Protecting Economic Liberty and Property 448

A. Historical Introduction 448

B. The Rise and Decline of Liberty of Contract and Substantive Due Process Review 450

Lochner v. NewYork 450

Notes on Lochner and the Heyday of Substantive Due Process 454

West Coast Hotel v.Parrish 456

Williamson v.Lee Optical 457

Note on State Substantive Due Process 457

C. The Takings Clause 458

D. Notes on the Original Understanding of the Takings Clause. 459

Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York. 461

Notes on Penn Central and the Takings Clause 465

Nollan v. California Coastal Commission 466

Dolan v. City of Tigard 467

Notes on Nollan, Dolan, and the Possible Revival of Active Review of Economic Regulations 468

Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council 469

Notes on Lucas and the Takings Revival 473

Note on Retroactivity and the Takings Clause 475

Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency 476

Notes on Lake Tahoe and the Current State of Takings Law 479

Problem 5-1: Takings and Biodiversity 480

Equal Protection and "Fundamental Interests ."

Section 3. Equal Protection and "Fundamental Interests" 481

A. Voting 483

Reynolds v. Sims 485

Notes on Reynolds and the "Fundamental Right" To Vote 488

Problem 5-2: Political Gerrymandering 489

Bushv.Gore 490

Notes on Bush v.Gore 490

B. Basic Rights for the Least Advantaged 496

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez 496

Plyler v. Doe 501

Notes on Rodriguez and Plyler 502

Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby. 504

Notes on Edgewood, State Constitutional Protections, and Constitutional Balancing 506

Problem 5-3: Racial Disparities and State Constitutional Law 511

C. The Right To Travel 511

Shapiro v. Thompson 511

Saenz v. Roe 512

Notes on Saenz 516

Section 4. Fundamental Privacy Rights 517

Meyer v. Nebraska 518

Note: What Kinds of "Liberty" Are Substantively Protected by the Due Process Clause? 519

A. Contraception, Marriage, and Family 520

Poe v, Ullman 521

A Note on Poe and Deadlocked Political Processes 525

Griswold v.Connecticut 525

Notes on Griswold and the Right of Privacy 531

Robert H. Bork, Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems 533

Note on the Ninth Amendment 536

Note on the Fundamental Right To Marry 539

Troxel v.Granville 540

Problem 5-4: State Regulation of Sexuality 542

B. Abortion. 542

Roe v.Wade 542

Notes on Roe and the Abortion Controversy 547

Reva Siegel, Reasoning from the Body: A Historical Perspective on Abortion Regulation and Questions of Equal Protection 549

Note on Abortion Regulation as Sex Discrimination. 550

Note: The Abortion Right from Roe to Casey 551

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services 553

Hodgson v. Minnesota 553

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey 554

Notes on Casey and the Fundamental Right To Abortion 566

Stenberg v. Carhart 570

Problem 5-5: Prohibition of Sex-Specific Abortions 571

Consensual Sexual Activity 572

Bowers v. Hardwick 572

Notes on Bowers and Privacy for Gay Men and Lesbians 578

Commonwealth of Kentucky v. Wasson 580

Problem 5-6: Should Bowers v. Hardwick Be Overruled? 582

Section 5. The “Right to Die” 582

Washington v .Glucksberg 582

Notes on the "Right To Die" Case 590

Problem 5-7: Human Cloning 591

Section 6. Procedural Due Process 592

A. Introductory Notes on Procedural Due Process 592

Goldbergv.Kelly 596

B. Defining “Liberty” and “Property 597

Board of Regents v. Roth 597

Notes on Defining "Property" and "Liberty" 600

C. Defining "What Process Is Due" 604

Mathews v. Eldridge 604

Notes on Defining "What Process Is Due" 607

Problem 5-8: Issues of Procedural Due Process 609

Problem 5-9: Reviewing Fundamental Rights 610

The First Amendment: Freedoms of Speech and Press 561

Chapter 6. The First Amendment 613

Section 1. Free Speech and Competing Values 613

Note on the Original Understanding of Freedom of Speech 614

Texas v. Johnson 617

R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul 619

Notes on First Amendment Values Implicated in Johnson and R.A.V. 624

United States v. O'Brien 628

Note on the "Imperial" First Amendment 629

Problem 6-1: Drafting a Rule Regulating Law School Posters 630

Section 2. Regulation of Harmful Messages 631

A. Illegal Advocacy 631

Masses Publishing Co. v. Patten 631

Schenck v. United States 632

Abrams v. United States 633

A Note on Subversive Speech from 1920-1960 637

Gitlow v. New York 637

Whitney v. California 638

Brandenburg v. Ohio 641

Notes on Brandenburg 642

B. Defamation and Privacy 645

NewYorkTimesCo.v.Sullivan 645

Gertz v.Robert Welch, Inc. 649

Hustler Magazine v. Falwell 649

Notes on New York Times and Libel Law 650

Notes on Post-New York Times Developments in Defamation Law 652

Bartnicki v. Vopper 657

Notes on Bartnicki 659

Problem 6-2: Free Speech versus Privacy 660

C. Obscenity and Indecent Speech 661

Millerv.California 661

Paris Adult Theatre Iv. Slaton 664

Notes on Regulating Sexually Explicit Materials 665

Butler v. Regina 668

A Note on Feminist Anti-Pornography Theories 669

Problem 6-3: Feminist Anti-Pornography Ordinances 670

City of Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc. 671

Notes on Renton 674

Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. 67

City of Erie v. Pap's A.M 676

D. Fighting Words, Captive Audiences, and Hate Speech 677

1. The Fighting Words Exception, 677

Chaplinsky v.New Hampshire 677

Cohen v. California 677

Notes on Cohen and Offensive Speech 681

2. An Exception for Hate Speech? 682

Beauharnai sv.Illinois 682

Wisconsinv.Mitchell 683

Note on the Hate Speech Debate 684

Problem 6-4: University Regulation of Hate Speech 686

Problem 6-5: May the State Prohibit Sexually HarassingRemarks? 688

3. Offensive Speech in the Electronic Media 688

Federal Communications Comm 'n v. Pacifica Foundation 688

Note on Regulation of Indecent Speech in the Electronic Media: Sable, Denver Area, Reno v. ACLU 689

E. Commercial Speech 691

Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council 691

Notes on Virginia Board 695

Posadas De Puerto Rico Associates v. Tourism Company of PuertoRico 697

44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island 698

F. Campaign Expenditures 700

Buckley v .Valeo 700

First National Bank v. Bellotti 703

Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce 703

I Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government 704

Notes on Regulating Campaign Finance 704

Problem 6-6: Electioneering Communications 708

Note on Judicial Elections 708

Note on Equality of Access as a Government Goal in Media Regulation 710

Section 3. Speech with a Government Nexus 713

A. Speech on Government Property and the Public Forum Doctrine 713

United States v. Grace 714

Hill v. Colorado 715

Notes on Grace, Hill, and the Traditional Public Forum 716

Ward v. Rock Against Racism 718

Notes on Rock Against Racism and Time, Place and Manner Regulation 721

Perry Educ. Ass'n v. Perry Local Educators’ Ass'n 722

International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee. 722

Notes on Lee and Evolving Public Forum Doctrine 728

Problems on the Public Forum Doctrine 729

B. Speech by Public Employees and Recipients of Government Funds 730

1.Speech by Public Employees 732

2. Political Conduct/Status of Government Employees 732

3. Unconstitutional Conditions 734

Rust v.Sullivan 735

Rosenberger v. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia 737

Notes on Unconstitutional Conditions 738

National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley 741

LegaI Services Corp .v. Velazquez 741

Notes on Velazquez 746

Problems on Unconstitutional Conditions 746

C. Speech Within Government Institutions 747

Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier 748

Notes on Speech Within Government Institutions 751

Problem 6-13: Don't Ask, Don't Tell Policies 753

Section 4. Process-Based Protections for Speech 754

A. Prior Restraints and Permit Systems 754

Near v .Minnesota 754

Shuttlesworth v. City of Birmingham 755

New York Times Co. v. United States 756

Problem 6-14: The H-Bomb Case 757

Madsen v. Women's Health Center, Inc. 757

Notes on Madsen 761

B. (Due Process) Vagueness and the First Amendment. 763

Gentile v. State Bar of Nevada 764

City of Chicago v. Morales 765

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