ast year, a 10-month-old baby boy died in the hospital after a minor operation went wrong. The baby's parents, an American couple, had two other children and probably could have had another if they wished; neither parent was infertile, and both were healthy and in their 30's. But they did not want another child. They wanted this child. And before long, they began to believe that the longing they felt was telling them something quite specific -- that their dead baby's genes were crying out, as a ghost might, to express themselves again in this world. The idea preoccupied them that their little son's genotype deserved another chance, that it had disappeared by mistake and could be brought back by intention.
Now if all this had happened, say, five years ago, their conviction might have soon faded away. The couple might have told their friends or family about this secret dream of resurrecting their baby's genes, and been talked out of it, or comforted in some other way. But it happened last year -- four years into the cloning revolution sparked by Dolly the sheep, at a moment when optimism about the miracles of biotech was running high and when it was not at all hard to find other people who shared a kind of metaphysical faith in the power of genes. One such group, a science-loving, alien-fixated religious movement called the Raëlians, for whom cloning is a central tenet, was particularly eager to put its faith into action. Last June, the grieving couple and the Raëlians found one another (on the Internet, of course) with results that could -- and should -- reopen the whole debate over whether human beings ought ever to be cloned, and for what purpose.
It doesn't really matter that a perfect 'replacement' human can never be created. What matters is that some people think it can.
For it turned out that the couple, who had been well off to begin with, now had an infusion of cash: a promised malpractice settlement from the hospital where their baby died. They were willing to finance the Raëlians in an all-out effort to clone the boy from cells they had frozen after surgery performed two weeks before his death. And while they are not likely to succeed, the fact is that with at least 50 young female followers eagerly volunteering as egg donors and surrogate mothers, the Raëlians can't be ruled out, either. Nor, for that matter, could some other renegade group or individual with access to donor eggs and a decent lab. Cloning mammals is a wildly inefficient process that can require hundreds of attempts both to create an embryo and to implant it successfully. Only two or three out of every hundred attempts to clone an animal typically result in a live offspring. But for that very reason, successful cloning is partly a numbers game, in which luck and the ready availability of many donor eggs and borrowed wombs can play as significant a role as technical expertise. "When you look at what would be critically required to clone a human being, surrogates and a large number of eggs are key ingredients, and the Raëlians have those," said Gregory Stock, the director of the Program on Medicine, Technology and Society at U.C.L.A.'s School of Medicine. "They certainly have what's necessary to make a solid attempt." Besides, said Stock, "what they're doing is of symbolic significance. If they don't succeed, someone else will in the next five years."
The troubling thing is that the successful birth of a human clone will catch so many of us off-guard. In the years since Dolly, public discussions of cloning have shifted away from the specter of multiple human replicants to less disturbing possibilities, like the creation of genetically identical tissue grown for people with Parkinson's and other diseases. The initial revulsion at the very notion of cloning -- what bioethicists call the "yuck factor" -- has dwindled as more mammals have been cloned and as the prospect of someday replicating household pets seems to render the whole concept somehow cuter and more benign. Legislative efforts to ban cloning for reproductive purposes have stalled -- only four states (California, Rhode Island, Louisiana and Michigan) have passed laws against it -- and the federal moratorium merely precludes government money from going to it. Meanwhile, bioethicists, the professionals who promise to guide us through these troubled waters, have by and large embraced cloning, convinced that access to it constitutes a "reproductive right," a natural extension of technologies intended to help the infertile. Indeed, the people who openly express a desire to clone these days tend not to be megalomaniacs vowing to manufacture their own Mini-Me's (although Arnold Schwarzenegger did recently tell a reporter that he would "have nothing against cloning myself"). They're infertile couples who want a biologically related child and have exhausted other means, or bereaved parents yearning to "replace" a child they've lost.
Margaret Talbot is a fellow at the New America Foundation and a contributing writer for the magazine. Her last cover story was about inequities in the juvenile-justice system.
Moreover, it is not unprecedented for fringe groups to serve as incubators for concepts that would not be acceptable in mainstream science: think of the Aum Shinrikyo sect and its ventures in biological warfare. The Raëlians are not a tiny group -- they claim 55,000 members worldwide, though the number is probably closer to 25,000, according to Susan Palmer, a sociologist who has studied them. And they are not without resources. Since 1974, they have raised $7 million toward the construction of an "embassy" where alien visitors could be welcomed to our planet in style. Their followers, who hold fast to the ideal of everlasting life created through technology, are a devoted lot. Their leader has, in the words of Charles Cameron, a researcher with the Center for Millennial Studies at Boston University, "done an extremely good job of placing himself astride a powerful tide of hope and fear -- the longings of people who want to find emotional and religious meaning in science and biotechnology."
or all of these reasons, I decided to take the Raëlians and their cloning project seriously. It wasn't always easy. It was hardest when I waded into the teachings of Raël, a French-born former race-car driver who is the movement's leader. In 1973, Raël says, he had an encounter with a four-foot-tall alien ("his skin was white with a slightly greenish tinge, a bit like someone with liver trouble") whose flying saucer had landed atop a volcano in southern France. From this creature, he heard the message that humans had been created in a laboratory by advanced beings from another planet who had mastered genetics and cell biology. Subsequent visits to the spacecraft, during which Raël enjoyed the sensual attentions of six "voluptuous and bewitching" female robots, convinced the fun-loving prophet that the aliens did indeed have a superior civilization.
It was easier to take them seriously when I met with Brigitte Boisselier, a French chemist who is the "scientific director" of Clonaid, the Raëlians' cloning venture. It took a while to get to Boisselier, and I still don't know exactly where she lives. I was told by the group's unfailingly polite P.R. people that she "travels a lot." But eventually, a meeting was set, for a hotel lobby in Syracuse. The Raëlians have a knack for drawing in pleasant, attractive, professionally successful people in scientific or technical fields -- computer analysts, robotics engineers, lab technicians. Boisselier, who worked for many years as a research chemist at the French company Air Liquide and who now teaches chemistry at Hamilton College in upstate New York, was of that type. She has two Ph.D.'s, one from the University of Dijon and one from the University of Houston. With her handsome leather satchel and discreet gold jewelry, her dark hair pulled back from her pretty face in a neat bun, she projected, as she walked up to greet me, an air of cool, academic professionalism.
Raël and a mock-up of the U.F.O. he claims to have boarded in 1973.
Photograph by Jessica Wynne for The New York Times
We sat down in the hotel restaurant, and Boisselier ordered a chicken Caesar salad and a decaf coffee. I don't know what I expected -- somebody spacier or in silver spandex, maybe. Boisselier was neither, and yet the conversation we had that day was deeply strange nonetheless. She said she had a lab up and running, "not offshore, not in the Bahamas; somewhere in the United States." She wouldn't say where, except that it wasn't in one of the states that had outlawed cloning: "I'm no fool." She had assembled a team of three -- a geneticist, a biochemist and an ob-gyn currently affiliated with an in-vitro fertilization clinic -- and she said that the first two were working on the project full time, experimenting with cattle cloning initially and then moving on to human cells sometime this winter.
Was Boisselier worried about miscarriages or fetal abnormalities? "We will monitor the developing embryo and the pregnancy very closely," she said calmly. "We want a healthy baby." And she said that the surrogates who had volunteered to carry the cloned embryo -- one of whom is Boisselier's own 22-year-old daughter, Marina Cocolios -- were prepared to undergo abortions if defects were revealed by ultrasound or amniocentesis. If one pregnancy failed, another surrogate would automatically step into line; there would be no need to wait another month, as you would have to if you were dependent on the cycles of just one woman.
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In Montreal a few weeks later, I spoke to Cocolios and another surrogate, Sylvie Tremblay, a 38-year-old computer troubleshooter at Laval University. For shiny-eyed devotion to the cause, you could hardly beat these two. "There is nothing else that is a higher priority in my life than this," said Tremblay. "If my boyfriend didn't agree with my taking part, I would drop him like that." Cocolios, an arts student, smiled shyly and said that she had "always been obsessed by having a baby -- to carry life, to give birth. But my life is so sped up I don't even have time for my cat." She sighed girlishly. "I think it is so beautiful how this couple loved that child and wanted to bring back his genetics. I would offer this pregnancy as a gift to the whole of humanity."
Maybe Boisselier was thinking of her passionate volunteers when she said that she "didn't think there are major obstacles, actually, since cloning has been demonstrated in other mammals, and the technique has been refined. The main problem is the transfer of the DNA and making sure there are no defects when that transfer occurs." Still, the Raëlians had decided to use surrogates rather than encouraging the dead baby's mother to carry the child, because they didn't want her to have to go through a miscarriage "and lose that baby all over again."
For the time being, Boisselier told me, the couple wanted to remain anonymous: "Even their neighbors, friends and family don't know they're doing this." The family trusted her to represent their story -- all the details about them here were provided by her -- without revealing their identity. The couple weren't Raëlians themselves, she said; far from it. They "went to church every Sunday" and were well known in their community. "You have to understand, they are still grieving. It's hard for them to talk about the baby."
But what, or who, I wondered, did they think they would be getting, if by chance the Raëlians succeeded in growing another embryo from one of the dead boy's cells? "Well, you see, if they just have another child, it will be a different one," Boisselier said matter-of-factly. "And they say this child was unique. He was taken from us because of some malpractice at the hospital. He should be around us laughing and so on. He deserves to live again. And through cloning, there is a way for this genetic code to express itself so he can laugh and play and become whoever he was meant to become."
Did the parents realize that even a baby who shared the original's genotype would not be the same person? He'd be gestated in a different womb. He'd be subject to different environmental influences. And he'd be reared by parents who had been irrevocably altered by the loss of a baby.
Yes, said Boisselier, in her unflappable way, the parents realized that "this baby will have no memory of the 10 months they had been living together. They know the baby will not be exactly the same as the first one. But they are still working to get him back. They think this baby should be alive."
The Raëlians have at least 50 female followers volunteering as egg donors and surrogate mothers in the Clonaid project.
It was Halloween the day we met, and all around us, costumed people were eating their lunches. A big man in a toga was talking to a vampire. A girl-ghost stood by the bar, looking disconsolate. Boisselier paid no attention; she was going on in her low, sibilant voice about parents and children and bringing back the dead. It was one of those speeches that are meant to be self-evidently persuasive, in which each separate assertion sounds reasonable enough -- but the links between them are all wrong. "You mentioned that you have a son," she said evenly. "Imagine he died. Would you consider cloning? I think it might cross your mind. You have seen that child going through many stages, you have spent hours just to love that child and then suddenly it's not there anymore. You give a lot as parents. And I think that is probably part of the gift that you can give to a child. If a child is dead before its time, then it's another gift to give that life back to a child."
Clonaid has a list of a hundred people who have expressed interest in its services, most of them would-be parents with severe infertility problems, a handful of them homosexual couples. "In some cases," Boisselier conceded, "they could go to a sperm bank and so on, but they felt better about having a child with their own genes. I think it's probably written in us to have a succession of our genes." But lately, she was getting calls mainly from the parents of children who have died -- infants, teenagers, young adults -- though few of the callers had the foresight, or whatever one would call it, to freeze the tissue that would make cloning the dead even theoretically possible.
Boisselier finished her salad and started in on a story about a woman she knows who was badly injured in a car accident, and who, though she eventually recovered physically, lost all memory of her previous life. At first, I couldn't see where this was going. "Her family could hardly recognize her," she explained. "Because she has no memory of the past, no emotions connected to it." That must have been hard for the family, I said. "Yes, they were surprised," said Boisselier, who then added -- and this turned out to be the point of the story -- This lady was a good example of what a clone would be." That is, she looked the same, but lacked the experiences and associations that had made her dear to the people who wanted to bring her back in the first place. It was an indictment of the whole concept, and yet Boisselier didn't seem remotely aware of this, didn't seem to realize that if a person was unique and therefore by definition irreplaceable, then the quest to replace him was misguided and the encouragement of it cruel. Either our genes determine us or they don't, but if they don't, then cloning for the purpose of replicating a person is pointless. It holds forth the promise of unprecedented control -- manufacturing a human being who will share specific traits with a preapproved model -- but it cannot deliver.
et the odd thing, as I found out over the next few weeks, is how many people know this and don't know it at the same time. They will tell you that they realize cloning does not produce a copy of the original person, but something more like a later-born identical twin, and yet say that they would want to do it anyway. They'd want to do it so that they could know as much as possible in advance about their unborn children, so they wouldn't have to take their chances on sexual reproduction, so they could perpetuate their own genes or so they could hope against hope to get back somebody very, very much like somebody they had lost.
Three years ago, a 37-year-old man named Matthew Vuchetich fell out of a tree he was trimming and died. Matthew was the youngest of four children and the only son in a close-knit, Catholic family where he was generally regarded as a dazzler. (Nobody in the family has any connection to the Raëlians.) "He was brilliant; I mean that," said his sister Margo, a nurse-practitioner who lives, as Matthew did, in Atlanta. "He had a near-photographic memory. He talked over my head many a time." Matthew had a double degree in biology and chemistry and had worked in a lab at Emory. "But he couldn't stand to be inside four walls," his sister said, so he started a tree-trimming business that allowed him to be outdoors all day. Matthew was, she laughed, "a beautiful physical specimen, too. Pumped up. We joke sometimes that he's up in heaven saying, 'Hey, I'll never get old and y'all will."'
Brigitte Boissellier, Ph.D., director of the Raëlians' cloning project.
Photograph by Jessica Wynne for The New York Times
Within two days of Matthew's death, it occurred to his mother, Marion, that he ought to be cloned. Marion Vuchetich is a retired middle-school biology teacher, 77 years old, still sharp, energetic and, as she said to me, "open to new things." Matthew had been an organ donor, so Marion called the organ bank and asked that a few square inches of her son's skin be preserved. Marion says she believes that human cloning will happen in the not-so-distant future, and so she holds onto the hope that Matthew will come back in some form to this world, even if it's after she herself has died. "My son was very interested in things scientific," said Marion. "He once said, 'If I should die, use everything you can from me and throw the rest away.' He would certainly have said, 'Go ahead, Mom."'
Matthew's sister Margo said the cloning idea "is pretty much my mother's own thing. But my sisters and I felt, let her do it. It's probably something she needs to do emotionally, intellectually, to get through this. He was the sparkle of her eye and she cries over him every day. I think she's trying to hold onto any thread of him."
In the last year or so, some, but by no means all, of Marion Vuchetich's determination to clone Matthew has subsided. Sometimes she thinks saving Matt's cells was just a sensible thing to do for other people in the family -- maybe someday a donor organ could be cloned from them. But she has kept up with cloning research by staying in touch with experts like Gregory Pence, a professor of ethics at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and an advocate of cloning. "Marion knows this wouldn't be Matthew exactly," said Pence, who gets about "a call a month" from people hoping to replicate a dead loved one. "She just wants something back. And who am I to tell her that's the wrong thing for her? A lot of people believe in the theory of the proper way to grieve -- Këbler-Ross's stages, that sort of thing. But in practice, heterosexual couples have replacement children all the time. They have a stillborn baby; the woman gets pregnant again right away. But when somebody wants to use cloning for the same purpose, they're criticized."
Of course, if Matthew could be cloned, the result would be a baby -- and then a child and then an adult -- created to fulfill inescapably precise and poignant expectations. It's hard to imagine a human being who would be less of an end in himself. Marion Vuchetich said she understood that a clone "wouldn't be a duplicate of Matthew." Still, she referred to this theoretical clone as Matthew: "If I were a younger woman, I wouldn't hesitate for a minute. But I don't know if I want someone else to raise Matthew." And if Matthew could be cloned, I asked, what did she think she would get back? "His mind," she said unhesitatingly. "My son had an I.Q. of 165. I feel like the world lost something."
Over the last few years, as human cloning has receded from legislative agendas and public discussion, it has become a subterranean fantasy for all kinds of people. But it seems to have most powerfully caught the imagination of certain people in mourning, people who find in it an outlet for the lacerating need just to have their beloved here again. Internet chat groups devoted to cloning help stoke their hopes, as do companies like Southern Cross Genetics, an Australian start-up that offers to store DNA for future cloning.
The Web site of a group called the Human Cloning Foundation is a reservoir of such longings. There's the Mexican doctor who keeps posting urgent messages, pleading for information about how to clone his dead son: "I had a child 3 years old but he died last week, I need that somebody help me to find someone that make human clonings at this moment any place around the world." There's Eileen, who posts: "Person is dead for a month, can his hair help? . . . Pls help a 17 year old boy." Or David, whose 8-year-old son has just died: "My wife and myself miss him so much. . . . How would it be if there was a way to start all over again?" On other Web sites, I found messages from Dianne, a woman who wants to clone her dead father ("My father was a remarkable man, and I intend to see that he goes on in this world"); a Lebanese family eager to clone a nephew killed in a car accident (his mother "is desperately in need of getting him back at any cost"); a woman named Fiona who says she was "shattered by the death" of her twin sister. The day Fiona heard that a sheep had been cloned, she writes, "My first thought was, 'I can get my twinnie back."' Only with time did it occur to her that "it would be impossible to recreate my sister in her totality as a person. . . . The best that could be done is the production of a blank page with my sister's genetic format." Most of us know this: that without our particular accretion of memories we wouldn't be who we are; that a baby born in 2001 couldn't possibly be the same person as someone born 30 years ago; that if you could have a baby who would truly grow into an eerie simulacrum of a dead loved one, it would be painful to look at him. But grief can derail what we know -- as can the feeling, fed by genetic breakthroughs and the glorification of them, that maybe genes really are us.
ntil a few years ago, would-be cloners had little to encourage them -- a sci-fi novel here, a "Star Trek" episode there. But in February 1997, Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Scotland announced that they had successfully used a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer to create a cloned sheep they named Dolly, after Dolly Parton. (It was a geek's joke: Dolly was cloned from a mammary cell.) Wilmut and his team had transferred the DNA-containing nucleus from the cell of an adult ewe to a donor egg whose own nucleus had been removed, leaving only the outer membranes and the cytoplasm. To fuse the adult nucleus and the hollowed egg together and to activate development of the embryo, a process usually set in motion by the helpful sperm, the researchers applied an electrical pulse, essentially shocking it to life. The hard part -- what Wilmut managed that had been thought impossible before Dolly -- was to show that the DNA in the adult nucleus, which was already serving its mature, specialized purpose, could essentially be tricked into dividing and otherwise behaving like a brand-new fertilized egg. The next, not particularly complicated step, was to implant the embryo in the uterus of yet another sheep, which served as a surrogate mother. (It could have been implanted in the adult ewe who contributed the nucleus, but in this case, that ewe was by then dead.) Since the nucleus of each cell in the body contains the genetic instructions for the whole, the resulting offspring, Dolly, was one that shared an identical genotype with the original -- a clone. Human cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer would work essentially the same way.
For some people, cloning just seems like a chance to have a baby with a genetic connection, even if the connection is uncomfortably close.
Public reaction was immediate, and initially at least, laced with bafflement and even horror. Nearly everyone who commented on Dolly made the imaginative leap to human cloning. And while there were those, like the sociobiologist Richard Dawkins, who wrote that "it would be mind-bogglingly fascinating" to watch "a younger edition of myself growing up in the 21st century," or the freewheeling physicist Richard Seed, who claimed he couldn't "wait to clone himself three or four times," most people were disturbed by the idea of making genetic copies. If a woman cloned herself and reared the child, she would be her own daughter's identical twin. If she had a husband, he would eventually find himself with a daughter who uncannily resembled his wife. Would this lead to confusion, even incest? And how could a cloned child live out his life freely, knowing he was the recipient of a preworn, consciously selected genotype? Wouldn't it be horrifying to know so much from such an early age about your own fate -- what diseases you'd be likely to get, what personality flaws? What sort of narcissism would cloning unleash in us? What new enticement would it offer to tinker with our genes and produce "superior" babies by design? Would cloning, with its seeming guarantees, gain an edge on sexual reproduction, with all of its unknowns? Would babies no longer be conceived but manufactured? What would it say about us if we wanted that?
In June 1997, President Clinton, following the recommendations of his National Bioethics Advisory Commission, which had concluded that human cloning would be unsafe and therefore unethical "at this time," signed a five-year moratorium on the use of federal funds for human cloning research.
Animal cloning, however, proceeded apace. In the past four years, scientists have cloned more sheep, as well as goats, cows, pigs and in the most efficient cloning experiment yet, dozens of mice over six generations from a single mouse. The goal of most cloning projects is to create herds of genetically identical animals that could produce drugs in their milk or replacement organs for humans. But researchers working on the Missyplicity Project at Texas A&M are using the $2.3 million offered them by a bereft pet owner to try to copy his dead dog, Missy. Each of these breakthroughs makes human cloning that much more technically feasible. And the prospect of cloning a pet -- what might be called the first instance of sentimental cloning -- makes it, for some people, all that much more emotionally feasible.
Despite concerted effort, no one has yet succeeded in cloning a monkey, and this failure could mean it will be harder to achieve in humans than it has been in other mammals. But Don Wolf of the Oregon Regional Primate Research Center isn't so sure. "From a logistical point of view, it's actually more difficult to clone monkeys than humans," said Wolf. "We don't have 750 labs across the country doing assisted reproduction in monkeys. Some of the clinical work we've been struggling with -- how best to grow monkey embryos, how to transfer them directly to the uterus -- are old hat in the I.V.F. world."
Nearly all of the animal cloning efforts, however, have led to high rates of fetal and neonatal mortality in the resulting offspring. Those who compare cloning to current I.V.F. techniques -- arguing that lots of those fail, too -- neglect to mention that I.V.F. failures consist mostly of unsuccessful implantations, not the sudden deaths of young babies.
"All sorts of things go wrong," said George Seidel, a cloning researcher at Colorado State University. Cloned cattle and sheep are often born dangerously large. "Normally you might expect a 100-pound birthweight in a calf, but with a clone, you might get 160 pounds," said Seidel. Because such outsize calves don't have room to wriggle around in the uterus, they can be born lame or with limb deformities. "Sometimes the kidneys aren't right, they're just plain put together wrong -- or the heart is, or the lungs, or the immune system," he added. "It can be a unique abnormality in each case. They can die within a few days after birth, or sometimes they just can't make it after you cut the umbilical cord." Nobody really knows why.
Only if such problems are surmounted, said Seidel, would experimenting with human cloning be ethical: "We shouldn't be deliberately producing babies with abnormalities. We're talking about an abnormality rate of maybe 30 percent in cloned animals. In human babies, the normal rate of congenital defects is about 2 percent, and we wouldn't tolerate a jump to 3 percent." Indeed, virtually all of the scientists who have tried to clone other mammals say that we don't know enough at this point to try it in humans, and that to do so would amount to hugely risky experimentation on prospective people. Citing such safety concerns (as well as the possible psychological impact on children), the ethics committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine issued a report in November saying that cloning as a treatment for infertility did not currently meet "standards of ethical acceptability."
Besides, though cloned animals can be normal and healthy-appearing -- some cloned mice and cattle even seem "improved," in the sense that they appear to age more slowly -- what's normal in a barnyard animal isn't all that high a standard. "The fact that you can get a sheep or a mouse that looks normal," said Stuart Newman, a developmental biologist at New York Medical College, "doesn't mean that some subtle things haven't gone wrong in brain development that you wouldn't necessarily notice in a sheep, but you would in a human. Yes, you can clone a mouse -- but can you take him to the opera?" Cloned humans might show higher rates of cancer or other diseases, but we'd only find out by cloning them and waiting to see if disaster strikes.
None of this means, however, that cloning services won't someday be marketed to desperate people -- or even that human cloning isn't going on somewhere right now. "It's relatively easy to set up a lab and find someone competent to carry out the procedures," warned Roger Gosden, an infertility researcher at McGill University. "Regrettably, we will probably wake up one day to the news that someone, somewhere, has used somatic-nuclear-transfer technology to produce a human clone."
At least one celebrated infertility specialist, Severino Antinori, the Rome-based doctor who helped a 62-year-old woman become pregnant, has publicly acknowledged that he would like to clone babies. Others in the field think he might not have a hard time of it. "From a technical point of view, cloning a human would be a very simple thing," said Jacques Cohen, the director of reproductive medicine at St. Barnabas Medical Center in Livingston, N.J. "I'm not advocating its use, but on the scale of things we've attempted, I just wouldn't expect it to be a big challenge."
Moreover, while cloning for human reproduction is now banned in Japan and in most of Europe, there are countries where assisted reproductive technology has become increasingly sophisticated and where no legislation forbids cloning. South Korean researchers, for example, have been active in animal cloning, and a few years ago, a team at Kyunghee University Hospital in Seoul claimed to have created an embryo from the nucleus of a 30-year-old woman, then destroyed it after developing it to the four-cell stage in vitro. (The researchers never published their results, however, casting doubt on the project.) "I wouldn't be surprised if you heard of it happening in some province of India or Pakistan that wanted to show it had a place in the world," said Gregory Pence. China is another possibility, especially since its I.V.F. industry has lately taken off and its one-child policy has encouraged eugenic thinking.
Already, bioethicists who favor cloning have begun outlining the categories of people who might consider it. Indeed, for the last several years, those in the profession who have taken up the subject of human cloning seem to have been more concerned with identifying its worthwhile applications than with raising serious alarms about it. "Bioethicists are the most enabling community of all," said George Annas, a professor of health law at Boston University and one of the few bioethicists who has called for a ban on human reproductive cloning. "There's a libertarian strain among bioethicists -- autonomy and individual rights are so important to them that it's virtually impossible for them to look beyond that." Indeed, the pro-cloning bioethicists I talked to often resorted to a sort of consumer logic: there's a market out there that wants this, and who am I to say they can't have it?
"I could imagine three main groups who'd be interested in cloning," said Ronald Green, a professor of ethics at Dartmouth (and an adviser to the biotech company Advanced Cell Technologies). The first would be couples in which the woman lacks viable eggs and the man lacks viable sperm, "and cloning is the only way they can have a child who is biologically related to them." The second "would be lesbian parents -- and, to a lesser extent, gay men, since they'd still need a female surrogate." Unlike sperm donation, cloning would allow such a couple to sidestep "a genetic third party who, years down the line, might want to gain access to the child." The third group, said Green, would be made up of "people with serious genetic disorders that are not amenable to other modes of prevention like genetic screening -- because maybe the specific mutation isn't known or many different genes are involved -- and who still want to have their own biological child." Gregory Pence envisions an even larger market that would include people disappointed with the current array of assisted-reproduction technologies (which, after all, only succeed 25 percent of the time); heterosexuals wary of using the eggs or sperm of a stranger; and people "too sophisticated" to take a chance on the "lottery" of sexual reproduction with their husbands or wives. A button given to me by one of the Raëlians puts it succinctly: "Cloning -- Reproduction Without Compromise."
For some people, cloning just seems like a chance to have a baby with some kind of genetic connection -- even if it's only to one parent, even if the connection is uncomfortably close, even if they're a little vague on what a clone is. Desiree Boen, one of the dozens of infertile people who have posted messages to the Human Cloning Foundation Web site seeking help, said she was "really, really interested" in trying to clone a baby. Boen, a 25-year-old teacher's aide and former nurse from Orlando, Fla., has two children, 9 and 6, but because of a hysterectomy she underwent a year ago, she can't have any more with her new husband. Unlike many infertile people intrigued by cloning, Boen tried to adopt -- but it was a private adoption, and "the mom seemed so flaky and unsure that I backed out of it." She said she would consider having a baby with the help of a surrogate mother, "except that you hear such bad stories about them changing their minds and keeping their babies." And because she lacks ovaries, Boen would need donor eggs as well. "I have a niece who's 19, and she offered one of her eggs," she said in a phone conversation. "But you know it gets pretty complicated when it's inside the family." When I asked if she would prefer to clone one of her cells or her husband's, Boen was puzzled, then admitted she thought "you could use both." But after a moment, she said, "Oh, I'd take my husband's, I guess." She said her husband was a great guy and she'd like him to have a boy just like him -- one whom he could enjoy "in the cutesy phase."
Cloning for reproduction could be done, at least for a while, without most of us knowing it, said Mark Eibert, a lawyer who has submitted testimony to Congress in favor of cloning. "People who wish to have children may not want those children to become the focus of a media circus," he said. As for the health risks involved, Eibert pointed to the precedent of an infertility treatment called ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection), in which doctors inject slow-moving or otherwise inefficient sperm directly into the egg's cytoplasm. ICSI was developed in the early 90's and rushed into clinical use in fertility clinics across the country. "Even though it had virtually no animal experimentation and virtually nothing was known about its safety, it took off," Eibert explained. "Once you get normal healthy children on the ground, cloning will take off, too." And if the Raëlians are the first to pull it off? So be it. "From a P.R. point of view, I'd be happy if people like that weren't the first," he said. "But then again, if a Hare Krishna scientist was the first to invent a cancer cure, I think other scientists would be interested enough to pay attention. After a while, the history books wouldn't even mention the religion."
he fact is, for all of the Raëlians' eccentricities, there is something about them that is perfectly attuned to their times. The Raëlians are enthusiastic about e-mail and sex and down on smoking and homophobia. And most of all, they love, love, love genetic engineering. They find it, as they like to say, in their French pop singer way, "very beautee-ful." In this sense, you could see them not as bizarros inflamed by a singular vision but simply as the most fervent proponents of a genetic essentialism that is fairly widely shared these days. To put it another way, the Raëlians are just a bunch of people who took literally the cliche that science is replacing religion.
The group's spiritual headquarters, where I visited Raël on a rainy November day, is a monument to its delirious scientism. Centre UFOland sits plop in the middle of rural Quebec, about an hour outside Montreal. Its neighbors are wheat and cattle farms; back down the sodden dirt road, on the main highway, are a smattering of trailer parks, a tractor factory and a couple of fast-food places specializing in gravy-soaked french fries. The building itself is shaped like a giant swoosh, and constructed, ingeniously, out of bales of hay slathered over with concrete. Inside is a museum devoted to extraterrestrial phenomena and to genetics -- a curious amalgam of sci-fi and science. The high-ceilinged main exhibit room contains a life-size replica of the flying saucer Raël boarded back in 1973 for his visit with the aliens. It's made of plywood spray-painted silver and is pretty much empty except for a couple of inflatable vinyl chairs. (When visitors are around, a propane torch, suggesting the sound of a landing spaceship, gives it a Vegasy sort of grandeur.) Nearby, a 26-foot-high model of a double-helix spins slowly, illuminated by a spotlight so that its Lego-colored molecules gleam. There are plenty of pictures of little green men at UFOland, but there are also accurate models of cells and straightforward explanations of the Human Genome Project, the cloning of Dolly and so on.
I got a tour of the place from an uncharacteristically saturnine Raëlian named Michel. We walked from one dark and chilly exhibit room to the next, throwing on the lights as we went. Michel explained that "primitive man," which is to say everyone who lived before the age of genomics and of Raël, "did not understand the chemical nature of life. They didn't understand that the DNA is the soul." Michel permitted himself a little cackle at primitive man's expense. "They didn't understand that reincarnation can only happen through science -- through cloning -- so they imagined some, some. . . . " He paused, searching for the right term of opprobrium. "Theology."
'You can call it eugenics, but not in a bad way, like the Nazi way. . . . 'said Raël. 'Cloning would be available to all human beings.'
Raël's office is next door to the museum, and I was escorted there by Sylvie Chabot, the angular, henna-haired business consultant who handles most of the Raëlians' publicity. We had to walk through a set of electronic doors that hissed shut behind us, then remove our shoes and wait for the second set of automatic doors to open.
Raël admitted us, smiling a crinkly Clinton-like smile and wearing his characteristic samurai-style topknot, white pants, wide-shouldered white tunic and gold medallion. His sealed lair is dominated by a large white bed with a tiger-print throw on it. The walls are covered with photographs of his companion, Sophie, a stunning young redhead, in which she is usually bare-breasted and nibbling on a rose or some such. I kept wondering why it is that futuristic prophets so often have to wear jumpsuits and medallions and whether we'll all have to wear them in the future. (My hairdresser had specifically instructed me to ask what was up with the topknot, but I subsequently read in Raël's book that hair and beards are antennae helping the brain transmit messages, so I figure he just wanted taller antennae.) I also thought about how, if you are a futuristic prophet, your life is suffused with pop culture and you can't help looking and acting like guys from "Deep Space Nine," just as real-life Mafiosi can't help looking and acting like guys from "The Sopranos."
None of this, however, was exactly the point. The point was cloning, a subject upon which Raël was more than happy to discourse at length. Of course, he said, the cloning project they were undertaking now through Clonaid -- the making or remaking of a baby for his devastated parents -- was really a piffle, a tiny step toward the ultimate goal of eternal life through cloning. The couple's hopes, and of course their money, were a necessary ingredient, but the goal was much larger than them; nothing short, in fact, of the defeat of aging and of death. "The next step will be to make it possible to clone directly an adult person and not a baby," Raël explained, and then to figure out how to "upload" his memory into the new body.
In the meantime, baby cloning was a good place to start. "And then," he said, "comes a lot of new technology that we support -- genetic engineering, genetic modification of human beings, improvement of human beings. You can call it eugenics, but not in a bad way, like the Nazi way of thinking before, which results in a superior race. No, cloning would be available to all human beings, to improve their characteristics and possibilities."
When I asked about resistance to cloning and qualms about the genetic engineering of humans, Raël heaved a gentle sigh of pity. "It was the same when Louise Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born. It was all Frankenstein and monsters. And now you have hundreds of test-tube babies made every day, and nobody asks anything about it because they know it's not bad. And that's why I am hoping that Clonaid will be the first company to make a cloned baby. And then everyone will see on CNN, maybe 'Larry King Live,' a beautiful family, a smiling baby, and we know it will be smiling because it will be a copy of the one we know, and people will say, 'Ah, that's beautiful!' and public opinion will change. It was the same at the beginning of fire, and with the steam engine and electricity. All human progress."
In some ways, Raël is merely the surreal version of other more respectable biotech utopians -- academics like Gregory Stock of U.C.L.A., who told me that new reproductive technologies are the beginning of the end of sex as the way we reproduce. "We will still have sex for pleasure, but we will almost certainly see our children as too important to leave to a random meeting of sperm and egg." Or Lee Silver, a molecular biologist at Princeton, who sanguinely predicted that parents will one day be able to choose for their children genes that increase athletic ability, genes that increase musical talents and ultimately, genes that affect cognitive abilities. "Why shouldn't parents be able to give their child something that other children already have?" (Like Raël, few of the mainstream biotech utopians seem overly concerned about the willful creation of genetic haves and have-nots.) Or brainy business guys like the former Microsoft executive Nathan Myhrvold, who has said that resistance to cloning is "just another form of racism," a kind of "discrimination against people based on a genetic trait -- the fact that somebody has an identical DNA sequence."
But more than anyone else, perhaps, Raël has hit upon a certain psychological truth: namely, that a common response to the disquieting feeling that science is accelerating beyond our capacity to comprehend it -- let alone control it -- is to declare oneself fervently, if confusedly, on its side. And that can also mean believing that somewhere, some wiser and higher force is guiding the latest discoveries and their uses, absolving us of the responsibility to judge them.
"Most traditional people are lost, spiritually lost, when it comes to space exploration, genetic engineering, genetically modified food, computers," said Raël. By contrast, the Raëlian movement was "the most fanatically pro-science of all the religions" and, therefore, "the best adapted to the new century." He continued: "Science and technology are beautiful, but if you don't link it to spirituality, you can easily become unbalanced or depressed and go to drugs and suicide. When you realize, on the other hand, that technology is not only technology but an extension of our spiritual life, it changes everything."
In the midst of such futurological abstractions, it can be easy to forget that if the Raëlians or some group like them succeed in their cloning project, they will be introducing an actual new person into this world. Raël himself didn't seem to have given a great deal of thought to the question of how a cloned child, being forced to play out some complicated re-enactment of a parent's or dead relative's life, might actually feel -- how that sense of uncharted destiny that we think of as a kind of birthright might be foreclosed for a purposefully replicated child.
Sitting in Raël's gleaming white office, it occurred to me that it doesn't really matter in the end that a perfect "replacement" human can never be created. What matters is that some people think it can. What matters is the contempt shown for death and limits and our own peace with ceding the world to those who come after us. What matters is the insidious idea that if someone can be replaced, then he is no longer singular, which is to say priceless.
And what about the resulting child? As the philosopher Hans Jonas wrote in the 1970's, with cloning, we endanger the "right of each human life to find its own way and be a surprise to itself."
But never mind. According to Raël, what we want, we ought to have. The intensity of the desire is the proof of its virtue. That, and the ability to finance it. "These people we are helping, they want this child," he said, smiling. "They are willing to pay millions of dollars to have one. You can't be more welcome than that."
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Prepared: Feb 4, 2001 - 12:02:29 PM