Combined Honours Bachelor of Arts in Multimedia and Another Subject

0. Table of Contents

    1. Introduction
    2. Societal Need
    3. Student Need
    4. Programme Design
    5. Operational Plans
    6. Bibliography

1. Introduction

The Province of Ontario in 1998 created the Access to Opportunities Program to encourage the expansion of programmes that prepare students for careers in the advanced technology sector, specifically Computer Engineering, Software Engineering, and Computer Science. The Faculty of Humanities at McMaster University has held discussions with the Ministry of Education officer responsible for the program in order to determine if a proposal for a Multimedia programme would be acceptable. We received a favorable response and were encouraged to submit a draft of the proposal in August to get clearance for the submission of a full proposal. We received clearance for a Combined Honours in Multimedia Programme. The programme we propose will concentrate on the creative, critical and computing skills that will encourage students to participate in the creation, discussion, development and management of multimedia information. This proposal was developed from the proposal for a Multimedia Certificate that had already been prepared. The programme will build on the School of Art, Drama & Music, the Humanities Computing Centre and the new McMaster strategic area in Information Technology. This proposal has the following features:

1.1 Rationale

Given the explosion of interest in the Internet and multimedia computing in society at large, students should be prepared to create and use information technology and multimedia. Existing arts programmes stress the critical, communicative and creative skills our students need, but do not apply these skills to multimedia or provide the technical and computing background needed to do multimedia. Other programmes provide the technical and scientific background but do not teach design and communication. This multimedia programme will bring together the best of both of these types of programmes to teach students to create multimedia works, to assess multimedia works critically, and to manage multimedia projects. McMaster students will be the multimedia developers, the animators, the electronic musicians, the information developers and managers who can imagine, create and contribute to on-line culture. If there is going to be "Canadian content" on the Internet, we need to teach students to be able to create it and manage it.

This programme will bring together five areas where McMaster is already strong:

Students interested in both the arts and computing need programmes that combine their interests in ways that make them attractive to employers, especially in the areas of publishing, education, multimedia, and information management. McMaster’s experience with the Arts and Science programme and Theme Schools like the new Science, Technology, and Public Policy school indicates an enormous demand for integrated programmes that combine the creative/critical and the technical/scientific. Many of the best incoming students excel in both areas and are looking for programmes that help them integrate their interests. Employers want students who are not only technically proficient but can also communicate effectively. Employers are in need of students from universities such as McMaster who have a level of computer literacy appropriate to their disciplines and an ability to express themselves effectively through written and multimedia communications.

The Multimedia Programme is a combined honours B.A. programme whose graduates will unite new multimedia computing knowledge with traditional arts subjects. These new multimedia skills include such areas as hypertext theory, text applications, Internet research skills, multimedia design and project management and a general level of computer literacy that includes computer basics, software program installation and applications, and web site development.

Students graduating from this program will

These students will bring to graduate programmes the unique combination of a traditional arts education and sought-after skills in the creation and criticism of multimedia.

2. Societal Need

The content industry will probably be one of the most dynamic sectors. Services like video-on-demand and interactive games are expected to boost the entertainment and audio-visual industry. Publishers and information providers are able to develop new products and services not only on a stand-alone basis but also on networks including internet. In sectors such as education, training and health care, there are also some opportunities provided by the progress in content technology. (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 1996: 7)

Canada’s transformation from an industrial to an information-based society that can compete in a global context depends on two interrelated areas of expertise: information technology expertise and the ability to develop effective content in different media and different languages. These skills and knowledge provide the foundation for exchanging intangibles such as ideas, information, and knowledge. And, since the 1970s, employment growth in Canada is increasingly related to the use and production of knowledge (Information Highway Advisory Council 1996: ii). If Canadians are to meet the social, economic and cultural challenges generated by the new knowledge-based economy, and continue to give leadership at local, national and global levels, then new programmes that combine these areas of expertise are needed. The following are some of the areas where multimedia expertise is needed.

2.1 Employment

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development expects the multimedia content industry to be one of the fastest growing employment sectors. The Conference Board of Canada in a 1996 study concludes that information technology intensive industries showed significant gains in employment (Information Highway Advisory Council 1997: 84). The Information Highway Advisory Council notes that

The structure of employment in all sectors is shifting towards knowledge- and technology-intensive industries. In addition, an increasing proportion of employment is accounted for by industries that require workers with more skills.... (Information Highway Advisory Council 1996: ii)

Robyn Gordon, communications director of the Software Human Resources Council in Ottawa, estimates there will be a need for approximately 20,000 programmers in Canada over the next two years (Globe and Mail, July 14, 1998: A10). The concomitant spin-off for employment in industries which are using the systems created by these programmers, especially in the learning, content and service industries, means a growing number of jobs for technologically literate applicants. McMaster University, by offering the Multimedia programme, presents arts students with a unique opportunity to gain such expertise. Three segments of these industries, content, learning, and service, provide employment niches for technologically educated graduates.

2.1.1 Content:

Content industries, linked to learning industries, include

It is expected that the global market for multimedia products will grow by 25% per year, attaining an estimated value of US$24 billion by 1999 (Information Highway Advisory Council 1997: 95). The companies that develop these products will need designers, writers, animators, and musicians who are both conversant with the delivery technology and have the creative, analytic and communicative skills necessary to make interesting products. (Attached to this proposal are letters of support from industry.)

2.1.2 Learning

Key learning industry markets include all levels of education, job, and other related training (Campbell 1994: 3). Multimedia products and services form an increasingly large part of the information technology used in the learning industries as they enhance the rate of learning and retention and decrease the cost of learning materials (Campbell 1994: 4). Recently, a U.S. Department of Defense study found that multimedia training was roughly 40% more effective than traditional training, with a retention rate 30% greater, and a learning curve 30% shorter (Shulman 1992: 23-24). Given the demand for effective multimedia learning materials, we need graduates capable of designing multimedia content and using it effectively in teaching.

2.1.3 Social Service and Business

Divided into high- and medium-knowledge based industries, the social service and business categories cover computer and related services, pharmaceutical and medical services, management consulting services, health and social services, other business services (high) and communication, wholesale trade, finance, insurance, real estate, and other services (medium) (Lee and Has 1996: 44). These knowledge-based industries are growing faster than any other sector in the Canadian economy (Information Highway Advisory Council 1996: 1).

The service job market, in response to advances in information technology, requires individuals to have new and multidimensional skills sets. This market change is also reflected academically, as students access and use new technologically-based information and course-related products. In both cases, students or workers are valued for the way they gather, produce, distil, interpret, and present information and knowledge (Campbell 1994: 16). To meet the challenges of the knowledge-based society, the service sector needs graduates who not only have the traditional communications skills but also the ability to understand and apply new technologies.

2.2 Cultural

The federal government recognizes that a strong social fabric must underlie a healthy economy (Information Highway Advisory Council 1996: 16). As part of strengthening the social fabric, the Canadian government maintains that Canadian content is necessary, both to create jobs and continue the cultural dialogue that makes us Canadians (Information Highway Advisory Council 1996: 2).

The Information Highway must ... provide us with a new and more powerful means of enriching and invigorating the ongoing cultural dialogue that defines our national identity, our shared values and the common social purpose that provides the foundation for democratic institutions. (Information Highway Advisory Council 1997: 58)

The emergence of the multimedia content industry has created a need to ensure that cultural policies encompass the new content forms. The Internet is one new medium increasingly prevalent in local and global markets. International comparisons show Canada’s Internet penetration to be relatively high and continuing to grow, and there is little doubt that the Internet, as a communication form, will continue its phenomenal growth (Information Highway Advisory Council 1997: 27). This medium has the capability for delivering multimedia services, mixing text, sound, video, graphics and animation. As the Internet’s capacity to deliver these multimedia services continues to evolve, we need a comparable evolution of the cultural dialogue about these new forms. Programmes such as this Multimedia programme are designed to produce students able to think carefully about and discuss the appropriateness and quality of content. We need not only engineers, but also creative artists and critics who can use this new medium to enrich the cultural conversation that defines us. This requires academic programmes that produce graduates who have the breadth of skills to be able to design, critique, and use Canadian cultural products for a thoughtful Canadian presence on the Internet.

2.3 Global Communication

In a global market, spoken and written languages continue to be essential media for the development and critique of new products in this multifaceted enterprise. As Campbell outlines in his report to the Information Highway Advisory Council,

...we rely on everyday language to understand, debate, develop and apply the discoveries of scientists and technologists. The larger our vocabulary, the easier it is for us to discern, to understand and describe subtleties, to refine our perceptions, and express ourselves. Therefore, it is central to Canada’s economic future that citizens be taught to read, write, and express themselves verbally. Essential for thought, language itself produces knowledge, which is the basis of the new economic order. In effect, language is the coin of the realm. (Campbell 1994: 79)

In a global context, this development not only means enhancing literacy in English and French, but also means learning other languages and being able to translate them. The humanities have always excelled at the teaching of languages and literatures. This programme will bring together this traditional strength of the humanities with training in the use of new media to produce graduates who can develop multilingual multimedia.

Graduates of this programme could pursue careers or further studies in

3. Student Need

The enrolment in various programmes and courses offered through Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology and McMaster University indicates the pressing demand for multimedia courses that are combined with traditional disciplinary areas. The quantity of these offerings needs to be increased to meet the demand from students. Some indications of student demand are enrolments in existing multimedia courses, the application rates for comparable college programmes, the number of oversubscribed college programmes with comparable content, and the success of similar university programmes at other institutions.

McMaster enrolment in currently offered Humanities Computing courses demonstrates the interest students have in existing offerings. In particular, the Introduction to Humanities Computing, first offered in 1995 and only open to Humanities students, has been expanded from 50 to 100 places. For the last two years, even with 100 places limited to Humanities students, the course has had waiting lists of over 30 students.

Introduction to Humanities Computing


100 places

100 registered

31 waiting



100 places

94 registered

40 waiting



40 places

35 registered



40 places

45 registered


Another indicator is the level of applications for Community College programmes which cover similar technical material. Many of these programmes are post-graduate ones that students take after they get a degree in traditional subjects. The Sheridan programmes have a reputation for being extremely competitive due to the advanced training provided and career prospects of the graduates in the animation industry. They accept mostly university graduates with art portfolios and computer experience. We hope that this

Multimedia programme will prepare students for such programmes if they are so inclined.







Interactive Multimedia




Corporate Communications






Interactive Media




Technical Writer










Liaison officers and others who have discussed the attractiveness of such a programme with high school students and counselors found significant interest. This Multimedia programme will be one of the first university programmes of its kind available to students in Ontario providing McMaster with another way with which to differentiate our degree from others.

Finally, it should be noted that, while there are no other universities in Ontario that offer an Honours B.A. in Multimedia, there are similar programmes in Canada and abroad. The closest programme in Ontario is a degree in New Media at Ryerson Polytechnic University. Elsewhere in Canada there is a proposed programme at the Technical University of British Columbia and the B.A. in Multimedia Studies offered at the University of New Brunswick. Outside Canada, there are successful programmes at Oberlin College, the University of North London and King's College in London. All three of these are aimed at liberal arts students as a program they can combine with traditional disciplines. The enrolment in these programmes suggests that ours would meet its enrolment target. The King's College programme, for example, had 35 students last year while we expect between 25 and 30 for ours.

4. Programme Design

The Combined Honours in Multimedia Programme is structured around a core set of courses designed to make sure that students will be able to

Depending on their selection of electives, students will also be able to


Enrolment in this programme is limited. Selection is based on academic achievement but requires, as a minimum, completion of any Level I programme and a Cumulative Average of at least 6.0 including a grade of at least B- in each of two courses from MMEDIA 1A03, 1B03, and 1C03 (formerly HUMAN 1A03, 2E03, and 2H03).


30 units from the Level I programme completed to gain admission into this programme (including 2 of MMEDIA 1A03, 1B03, or 1C03)

24 units MMEDIA 2A03, 2B03, 2C06, 3A03, 3B03, 4A03, 4B03

12 units from Course List 1 (see 4.5 for Course List)

36 units Courses specified for the other subject

18 units elective to total 120 units


Students will be expected to take two of the following three courses.

MMEDIA 1A03 Introduction to Computers in the Humanities

An introduction to issues in Humanities Computing. Students will study the history and present state of computing and information technology with particular attention given to issues around communication and electronic texts. In this context, students will also learn skills such as how to use graphical user interfaces, word processing, electronic mail, electronic textbases, how to browse the Internet, how to search a database and how to create a WWW page.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Antirequisite: HUMAN 2E03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 1B03 The Digital Image

An introduction to the critique and creation of digital images. Readings will explore issues concerning the digital image and graphic design for the Internet. Students will be expected to use graphics software and create WWW pages in order to complete design assignments.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Antirequisite: HUMAN 2H03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 1C03 Writing in the Electronic Age

An introduction to grammar and essay composition in the context of new writing technologies. Students will use supplementary writing software, WWW materials, e-mail discussion lists and readings to explore the effects of information technology on communication.

One lecture; one tutorial; one lab; one term

Antirequisite: HUMAN 1A03

Enrolment is limited.


Students will be expected to take the following core courses to complete the programme.

MMEDIA 2A03 Introduction to Multimedia

This course presents arts students with the fundamentals of computer-based multimedia. Students will read about and discuss how to critique multimedia works, create such works, and consider the application of multimedia technology.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: One of MMEDIA 1A03 or 1B03, HUMAN 2E03 or 2H03

Antirequisite: HUMAN 3G03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 2B03 Digital Media (Audio and Video) - [NEW]

A study of digital media where students will create and critique digital audio and video. Readings will explore the evolution of digital media and the technical and social aspects of digital audio and video.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: One of MMEDIA 1A03 or 1B03, HUMAN 2E03 or 2H03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 2C06 Computer Architecture and Network Services - [NEW]

Students will study the fundamentals of microcomputers, operating systems, and network systems. The emphasis will be on diagnostic knowledge of the hardware and operating system as used in the area of multimedia communication and the deployment, operation and maintenance of network services with special attention to WWW servers. Critical readings will cover the history of computing, networking, and the Internet.

Two lectures (1 hr.); one lab (3 hrs. every other week); two terms

Prerequisite: Registration in Level II of the Combined Honours in Multimedia Programme

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 3A03 Advanced Multimedia - [NEW]

A study of multimedia programming, this course expands upon the issues and techniques introduced in MMEDIA 2A03. Students will use advanced multimedia environments to design and develop multimedia applications that combine text, images, sound, video, and animation. Critical readings and discussion will cover theories of interactivity, hypertext, and instructional technology.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: MMEDIA 2A03 or HUMAN 3G03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 3B03 Topics in Philosophy and History of Computing

A seminar on the history and philosophy of computing and communications technology; topics may include Computers and Culture, The History of Computers and Communications Technology, Computers and Education, and Privacy and the Freedom of Speech in the Electronic Age.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: One of MMEDIA 1A03 or 1C03, HUMAN 1A03 or 2E03

Antirequisite: HUMAN 3A03

MMEDIA 3B03 may be repeated, if on a different topic, to a total of six units.

MMEDIA 4A03 The Management of Multimedia - [NEW]

Multimedia development requires collections of media and teams of developers. Students will study case histories, learn how to build and manage content collections and learn how to lead and participate in team-based multimedia production. Readings will cover the design of large media collections, management theory, copyright and intellectual property.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: Registration in Level IV of the Combined Honours in Multimedia Programme

MMEDIA 4B03 Senior Thesis Project - [NEW]

The Senior Thesis Project provides students with an opportunity to pursue individual advanced multimedia projects under the supervision of a Thesis Committee. Students will propose a multimedia project and have it approved by the Multimedia Programme Committee. Students will be expected to present their completed project publicly.

Prerequisite: Registration in Level IV of the Combined Honours in Multimedia Programme


Students will be expected to take four of the following courses.

MMEDIA 2D03 Electronic Texts and Their Study

An introduction to the fundamentals of computer-assisted text-analysis in the humanities. In the context of humanities research, students will learn to use text-analysis tools and will be introduced to computational linguistics. Students will be expected to work on projects related to another subject.

Prerequisite: One of MMEDIA 1A03, 1B03, 2I03, HUMAN 1A03, 2E03 or 2J03

Antirequisite: HUMAN 3F03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 2E03 Computer Graphics - [NEW]

This course develops both technical and conceptual aspects of computer drawing using standard computer graphics tools. Students will be expected to be familiar with the computer tools when they enter the course; here they will concentrate on developing their drawing abilities. Students will be expected to present their work and discuss that of others.

One lecture (1 hr.); one tutorial (1 hr.); one hour of independent study; one term

Prerequisite: MMEDIA1B03 or HUMAN 2H03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 2F03 The History of Graphic Design - [NEW]

An introduction to the history of graphic, two-dimensional design. The course demonstrates the admixture of high and popular culture that informs advertising, posters, book design and illustration, etc.

Three lectures; one term

Prerequisite: Registration in Level II or above.

Cross-list: ART HIST 2F03

MMEDIA 2G03 Introduction to MIDI and Computer Music - [NEW]

Basic electroacoustic theory; introduction to techniques of digital music composition, emphasizing MIDI applications; computer music notation; aesthetics of music composition. Students will be expected to produce at least one original work. Prior experience with computers and/or music composition is strongly encouraged, though not required. Students should be prepared to devote a significant amount of time to independent studio work.

Two lectures; one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: Registration in the Combined Honours in Multimedia Programme

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 2H03 Introduction to Animation - [NEW]

This class will begin with an introduction to the history and basic principles of animation. Students will be expected to create a significant work of computer animation in which they display a variety of techniques. An accompanying essay will explain the theoretical, artistic and technical issues raised by this project or by computer animation in general. Readings and discussions will cover theatre, film studies and narrative. Students will be expected to attend screenings.

One lecture (2 hours); one tutorial/screening; one term

Prerequisite: MMEDIA 1B03 or HUMAN 2H03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 2I03 Rhetoric and Communication in the Electronic Age

An introduction to the history of rhetoric, the study of classical and electronic examples of oral discourse. Students will analyze the persuasive technique of examples of oral communication collected from print and electronic media. There will be a practicum where students deliver an expository speech with multimedia support.

Prerequisite: Registration in Level II or above.

Antirequisite: HUMAN 2J03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 3C03 Advanced Computer Music - [NEW]

Digital audio workstations, including hard disk recording techniques, computer scoring, and multimedia applications. Students will be responsible for at least one extended original work which may be produced in collaboration with other students in this or another approved course.

Two lectures; one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: MMEDIA 2G03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 3D03 Technical Writing and Communication

An introduction to technical writing and documentation. Students will explore issues such as audience analysis, the role of jargon and specialized language. Students will be asked to complete a project of their own devising, including a proposal, a final report, and a videotaped presentation.

Prerequisite: One of MMEDIA 1C03, 2I03, HUMAN 1A03 or 2J03

Antirequisite: HUMAN 3B03

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 3E03 Hypertext Theory - [NEW]

This class will consider the history of hypertext systems and key theoretical issues in the area of hypertext and hypermedia. Students will be expected to try significant hypertext systems and read current theories of hypertext from authors such as Jay David Bolter, George Landow, and Stuart Moulthrop. Assignments will include reviews of hypertexts, presentations, and the creation of a hypertext essay.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: One of MMEDIA 1A03 or 1C03, HUMAN 1A03 or 2E03

MMEDIA 3F03 Human Computer Interface Design - [NEW]

This course will explore the history and design of computer interfaces. A variety of design approaches and techniques will be surveyed in an attempt to understand the relationship between computers and people. Students will work on a major project in interdisciplinary teams to research and prototype an interface for presentation in class. Readings and discussions will cover topics such as usability and evaluation of computer interfaces; drama, narrative, and interface; interface and representation; and the politics of interface design.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: Six units of MMEDIA courses beyond Level I and registration in the Combined Honours in Multimedia Programme.

Enrolment is limited.

MMEDIA 4C03 Computers and Education - [NEW]

This class will survey the history of instructional technology and uses of computers in education. Students will be expected to review instructional materials in their field, and to create, evaluate, and present an instructional application. Students will also be expected to read critics of technology and discuss the effects of technology on education.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: MMEDIA 3A03

MMEDIA 4D03 Virtual Reality and the Design of Space - [NEW]

This course will introduce students to the design of three-dimensional spaces and to theories of architecture as applied to virtual reality. Students will learn to use Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software and virtual reality markup schemes in order to complete projects related to other subjects. Such projects might include the design of fictional spaces, sculptural objects, dramatic settings, or archaeological re-creations.

One lecture (2 hrs.); one tutorial; one term

Prerequisite: Registration in Level IV of the Combined Honours in Multimedia Programme

Enrolment is limited.

In addition, any of the following Computer Science courses can be taken:

COMP SCI 1MC3 Computer Science I

COMP SCI 1MD3 Computer Science II

COMP SCI 1SA3 Computing Fundamentals

COMP SCI 2SC3 Design and Implementation of C Programs

COMP SCI 3SE3 Design of Visual Programming Environments


5. Operational Plan

5.1 Existing Resources in the Humanities Computing Centre and Humanities Communications Centre

The Multimedia programme will build on the facilities of the Humanities Computing Centre, which include a Communications Centre, Teaching Labs, Multimedia Classrooms, and Multimedia Development facilities. The McMaster Humanities Computing Centre has been in existence since 1986 when it was created out of existing Language facilities. The Humanities Computing Centre has, since 1986, been creating interactive language materials including the mcBOOKmaster series which is used around the world and the Listen series of multimedia language packages. The Humanities Computing Centre is the largest of its kind in Canada. Some of the features of this Centre are as follows;

A Virtual Walking Tour of the facilities is available by visiting the following WWW URL:

Some other sites of interest are:

Faculty of Humanities

Humanities Communications Centre

Pauline Johnson Archive

Cradle of Collective Bargaining

Humanities Software

Bertrand Russell Gallery

1998 Show of 4th Year Art Student Work

5.2 New Resources

The Multimedia programme is designed to accommodate 30 new students a year which we expect with withdrawals to result in a steady-state total of approximately 109 students. The existing resources will have to be supplemented in the following ways;



Campbell, Burke. The Information Highway: Avenues for Expanding Canada's Economy, Employment and Productivity. Ottawa: Information Technology Industry and Industry Canada, 1994.

Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. Knowledge Bases for Education Policies. Maastricht, The Netherlands: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1995.

Foray, Dominique and Bengt-Ake Lundvall. "The Knowledge-Based Economy: From the Economics of Knowledge to the Learning Economy," Employment and Growth in the Knowledge-based Economy. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1996: 11-34.

Gera, Surendra and Philippe Massé. Employment Performance in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Ottawa: Industry Canada, Human Resources Development Canada, 1996.

Immen, Wallace. "High-tech talent on fast track." The Globe and Mail. July 14 (1998): A10.

Information Highway Advisory Council. Building the Information Society: Moving Canada into the 21st Century. Ottawa: Information Highway Advisory Council, 1996.

Information Highway Advisory Council. Preparing Canada for a Digital World. 1997.

Learning and Training Working Group. Making It Happen: Final Report of the Learning and Training Working Group. Ottawa: Information Highway Advisory Council (Canada), 1995.

Lee, Frank and Handan Has. "A Quantitative Assessment of High-Knowledge Industries versus Low-Knowledge Industries," The Implications of Knowledge-Based Growth for Micro-Economic Policies. Ed. P. Howitt. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1996: 39-82.

Newell, Eric. "Business and education partnership must tackle dilemma of both work and worker shortages." Canadian Speeches. 10(5) (1996): 23-29.

NORTEL. The Supply of High-Technology Professionals: An Issue for Ontario's and Canada's Future. Brampton: NORTEL, 1998.

Ontario College Application Services. CommuniCAAT 1998-99; your guide to Ontario's colleges. Guelph, Ontario, 1998.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Information Technology and New Growth Opportunities. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1989.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Information Infrastructure Policites in OECD Countries. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1996.

Senn, James. Information Technology in Business: Principles, Practices, and Opportunities. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1995.

Shulman, R.E. "Multimedia... A High-Tech Solution to the Industry's Training Malaise." Supermarket Business. 47(4) (1992): 23-24.

SECOR. The Multimedia Industry in Canada: An Analysis of Development Options. 1997.

Woodall, Pam. "The World Economy: The Hitchhiker's Guide to Cybernomics." The Economist. September 28 (1996): 1-46.